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  1. Adolescent Education Program Training of Nodal Teachers


  3. DAY 1

  4. Some Indicative Ground Rules are Listed below • Maintain confidentiality at all times. What is shared by the group remains strictly within it. • Punctuality and time management. Mutual support in maintaining timings for the training.

  5. Ground Rules(contd.) • Compulsory attendance on all days. • Openness. It is important not to disclose others’ personal or private lives. It is acceptable to discuss general situations without using names.

  6. Ground Rules(contd.) • No interruptions. It is better to raise hands so that the Resource Person can invite the individual’s comment. • Ask questions one at a time and also give others a chance to talk.

  7. Ground Rules(contd.) • Questions can also be asked by writing them down and putting them in the Question Box in the room. • Non-judgemental approach. Do not laugh at any person. • Respect each other’s feelings, opinions and experiences.

  8. Objective of the Training Programme This three-day training programme has been designed to: • Provide the rationale and framework for the Adolescence Education Programme (AEP). • Build the knowledge base of Nodal Teachers (NTs) with accurate information on Growing Up, Adolescence, HIV/AIDS, Substance-Abuse, as well as the myths and misconceptions surrounding these issues.

  9. Train Nodal Teachers to transact training sessions by reinforcing skills essential for preventing HIV infections and Substance-Abuse. • Empower Nodal Teachers in dealing with issues of Growing-Up. • Ensure that Nodal Teachers are equipped with adequate skills to conduct an in-school, skills-based Adolescence Education Programme (AEP) in the course of the academic year.

  10. Group games Role play VIPP Situation analysis Group guided discussion Methods Presentation Case studies Brainstorming

  11. Setting the Context

  12. Who are Adolescents? • Adolescents: 10-19 years • Youth: 15-24 years • Young people: 10-24 years • Growth phases: • Early adolescence: 10-13 years • Mid adolescence : 14-16 years • Late adolescence: 17-19 years

  13. Why focus on Adolescents? • Large human resource (22% population) • Caring, supportive environment will promote optimum development – physical, emotional, mental.

  14. Why focus on Adolescents? • Their behaviour has impact on national health indicators. • Adolescents are vulnerable to STIs, HIV/AIDS and various other forms of abuse • Health of girls has inter-generational effect.

  15. Age structure of India’s population-2005

  16. Comparative age structure of population-2005 Nigeria and USA

  17. India’s demographic bonus • ‘Window of Opportunity’. • How can we make this a reality?

  18. Adolescent concerns • Growing Up concerns • Developing an identity. • Managing Emotions. • Body image concerns • Building Relationships. • Resisting Peer-Pressure.

  19. What are the issues related to Adolescent Health?

  20. Issue:Education • Enrollment figures have improved but dropout rates are high – 68% from class 1 to X.(Source: NSSO, 55th round, 2001). • Gender disparities persist - girls enrollment less than 50 % at all stages • Young people not at school join the workforce at an early age – nearly one out of three adolescents in 10-19 yrs is working.(Source: Census 2001).

  21. Issue:Education(contd.) • Quality of education is poor-students are not equipped with skills to face life challenges • Please reflect on • How can we make education useful in handling day-to-day issues?

  22. Issue: Marriage • Despite laws prohibiting marriage before 18 years, more than 50% of the females were married before this age. (Source: Census 2001). • Nearly 20% of the 1.5 million girls who were married under the age of 15 years are already mothers. (Source: Census 2001). • Choices are limited as to: whether, when and whom to marry; when and how many children to have.

  23. Issue: Marriage(contd.) Please reflect on • How can you contribute to prevent early marriages? • What can we do to equip young people to have children by choice, not chance?

  24. Issue: Health • Adverse sex ratio 10-19 years: 882/1000, 0-6 years: 927/1000. (Source: Census 2001). • Malnutrition and anaemia - boys and girls below 18 years consume less than the recommended number of calories and intake of proteins and iron. • Higher female mortality in the age group of 15-24 years.

  25. Issue: Health • For rape victims in the age group of 14-18 years, a majority of the offenders are known to victims. • More than 70% girls suffer from severe or moderate anaemia(Source: District Level Health Survey – Reproductive and Child Health, 2004). Please reflect on • How can we improve the nutritional status of Adolescents?

  26. Issue: HIV/ AIDS • There are 2 – 3.1 million (2.47 million) people living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2006. • Number of AIDS cases in India is 1,24,995 as found in 2006 (Since inception i.e. 1986 to 2006). (Source: • 0.97 million (39.3%) are women and 0.09 million (3.8%) are children

  27. Issue: HIV/ AIDS(contd.) • India – 2nd largest population of HIV positive persons infected. Over 35% of all reported HIV cases are in the age group of 15-24 years (NACO). • India has the second largest population of AIDS patients. Over 35% of all reported AIDS cases occurs among 15-24 year olds. {Source: NACO and UNICEF, 2001. Knowledge, attitudes and practices for young adults (15-24 years; NACO. 2005. India Resolves to Defeat HIV/AIDS)}.

  28. Issue: HIV/ AIDS(contd.) • Lack of abstinence is a contributory cause. • Persons living with HIV/AIDS face stigma and discrimination. • The estimated adult prevalence in the country is 0.36% (0.27% - 0.47%).

  29. Issue: Substance Abuse • Estimated number of drug abusers in India is around 3 million and that of drug dependents is 0.5 - 0.6 million. (Source: UNODC and Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, 2004) • Problem is more severe in the North-Eastern States of the Country.

  30. Issue: Substance Abuse(contd.) • Most drug users are in the age group 16-35 years. • Drug abuse rate is low in early Adolescence and high during late Adolescence. • Among current users in the age group of 12-18 years, 21% were using alcohol, 3% cannabis and 0.1% opiates (NHS-UNODC 2004).

  31. Issue: Substance Abuse(contd.) • A Household Survey on Drug Abuse indicated that 24% of 40,000 male drug users were in the age group of 12-18 years. (Source: UNODC and Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, 2004) Please reflect on • How can we reduce the vulnerability of young people to Substance - Abuse?

  32. Salient Findings on Study on CHILD-ABUSE • Two Out of every three children were Physically-Abused. • Out of 69% children Physically-Abused in 13 sample states, 54.86% were boys. • Over 50% children in all the 13 sample states were being subjected to one or the other form of Physical-Abuse.

  33. Salient Findings on Study on CHILD-ABUSE(contd.) • Out of those children Physically-Abused in family situations, 88.6% were Physically-Abused by parents. • 53.22% children reported having faced one or more forms of Sexual -Abuse. • Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar and Delhi reported the highest percentage of Sexual-Abuse among both boys and girls.

  34. Salient Findings on Study on CHILD-ABUSE(contd.) • 21.90% child respondents reported facing severe forms of Sexual-Abuse and 50.76% other forms of Sexual-Abuse. • Out of the child respondents, 5.69% reported being sexually assaulted. • In matters of Sexual-Abuse, 50% abusers are persons known to the child or in a position of trust and responsibility. • Most children did not report the matter to anyone.

  35. Vision for Healthy and Empowered Adolescents Through information, education and services adolescents are empowered to: • Make informed choices in their personal and public life promoting their creative and responsible behaviour.

  36. Empowering adolescents Create a safe and supportive environment. Provide opportunities for making informed choices in real life situations. Improve adolescent-friendly health services and link with existing programmes. Provide education and build life skills.

  37. Adolescence Education Programme (AEP) Upscaled to Adolescence Education as a component of National Population Education Programme(NPEP)

  38. Objectives of AEP • To develop essential value enhanced Life-Skills for coping and managing concerns of adolescence through co-curricular activities (CCA). • To provide accurate knowledge to students about process of growing up, HIV/AIDS and Substance-Abuse.

  39. Objectives of AEP • To develop healthy attitudes and responsible behaviour towards process of growing up, HIV/AIDS and Substance-Abuse. • To promote respect for the opposite sex and deal with gender stereotypes.

  40. Process of Growing Up • Nutritional needs of Adolescents in general and Adolescent girls in particular. • Physical growth and development.

  41. Process of Growing Up • Psychological development. • Adolescent Health Issues (AHI) • Gender sensitisation.

  42. HIV / AIDS • HIV/AIDS: Causes and consequences. • Preventive measures. • Treatment: Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART).

  43. HIV / AIDS • Individual and social responsibilities towards people living with HIV/ AIDS (PLWHA). • Services available for prevention of the spread of HIV, and of HIV infected persons and also of drug abusers.

  44. Substance Abuse • Situations in which Adolescents are driven to Substance-Abuse. • Commonly abused Substances. • Consequences of Substance-Abuse.

  45. Substance Abuse • Preventive measures. • Treatment. • Rehabilitation of drug addicts. • Individual and Social-Responsibilities.


  47. Co-Curricular Approaches STRATEGIES Interactive Activities Teacher Counseling Peer Education

  48. Interventions for Co-curricular Activities • Advocacy • Capacity building of Teachers/Peer Educators • Student activities • Health services – Counselling and referrals to Adolescent-Friendly Health Services

  49. School-level Activities Time: Minimum of 16 hours per academic year (more than 16 hours, wherever feasible). Training: At least two Nodal Teachers and two Peer-Educators per school are trained along with a plan of action for schools to conduct activities by teachers. • Advocacy activities at the school and community levels. • Conducting sessions by organising interactive activities.

  50. School-level Activities(contd.) Using Question-Box activities and responding to questions raised by students. • Training Peer-Educators and students to reach out to children who have dropped out or were never enrolled in school. • Strengthening linkages with Adolescent/Youth-Friendly Health Services.