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Delayed Coker Heater Designs. TECHNOLOGY — BASICS. Heat Transfer Radiant Convective (Bare, Extended Surface) Combustion Equipment Selection Fluid Flow Coil Configuration In-tube Velocity (Size, No. Of Passes) Refractory Linings Structural Design Mechanical Design.

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technology basics
TECHNOLOGY — BASICS
  • Heat Transfer
    • Radiant
    • Convective (Bare, Extended Surface)
  • Combustion Equipment Selection
  • Fluid Flow
  • Coil Configuration
    • In-tube Velocity (Size, No. Of Passes)
  • Refractory Linings
  • Structural Design
  • Mechanical Design

FILENAME

delayed coker experience
DELAYED COKER - EXPERIENCE
  • Over 70 Delayed Coker Heaters Supplied For Over 50 Coker Plants
  • Single Heater Capacities From 6,000 B/D To Over 30,000 B/D
  • Single Fired And Double Fired Configurations, To Suit Specific Applications
  • Designs For A Wide Range Of Conditions And Special Requirements

FILENAME

special considerations for coker heaters
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR COKER HEATERS

Keep The Coking DELAYED

  • Single Fired Or Double Fired
    • Feedstock Characteristics
    • Flexibility - Investment For The Future
    • Fuels
    • Preferences
  • Heat Input Control
  • Process Fluid Pass Control
  • In-tube Velocity
  • Residence Time
  • Rising Temperature Gradient
  • Flue Gas Recirculation in Radiant Section

FILENAME

special considerations for coker heaters5
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR COKER HEATERS

Keep The Coking DELAYED

  • Optimize Heat Flux Distribution
  • Coil Arrangement
    • Symmetrical
    • Tube Outlet Spacing
    • Height
  • Condensate/Steam Injection Points
  • Optimize Firebox Dimensions
    • Burner Spacing
    • Coil Arrangement
    • Bridgewall or Individual Cells

FILENAME

special considerations for coker heaters6
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR COKER HEATERS

Keep The Coking DELAYED

  • Temperature (Film & Tube)
    • Run Length
    • Constantly Rising Profile
    • Residence Time
  • Cleaning The Coil
    • On-line Spalling
    • Steam-air Decoking
    • Pigging
    • Mechanical - Plug Fittings

FILENAME

delayed coker heaters

DELAYED COKER HEATERS

Selection Process for Single or Double Fired Delayed Coker Heater Design And Run Length Considerations

furnace fouling
FURNACE FOULING

d Rf / d

= d Rc / d

- d Rs / d

is rate of fouling

d Rf / d

Where

is rate of coke laydown

d Rc / d

is rate of coke spalling

d Rs / d

The rate of coke laydown can be considered a function of:

- Characteristics of feed - Residence time

- Film temperature - Fluid Velocity

The rate of coke spalling can be considered a function of:

- Coke characteristics

- Fluid velocity

FILENAME

slide9

TI

N2 Supply Line

PressureEqualizationLine

TI

Shell

TI

Reservoir(Feed)

TI

Heater Tube

Reservoir(Discharge)

MeteringPump

HOT LIQUID PROCESS SIMULATOR

FILENAME

slide10

FOSTER WHEELER STANDARD DESCRIPTION

Foster Wheeler has established three “standards” for determining the heater configuration

1.

2.

3.

Readily fouls and is considered a difficult feedstock for a single-fired delayed coker heater. It has been run commercially with good results in a Foster Wheeler heater utilizing a double-fired design for difficult feeds. This feed is a vacuum residue from a high conversion ebullating bed hydrocracker.

Borderline feedstock that tends toward unacceptable fouling. A double-fired design heater is recommended, but a conservative single-fired heater may be utilized with on-line spalling to achieve acceptable run lengths. This feedstock is a conventional asphaltic vacuum residue.

Feedstock exhibiting acceptable fouling with single-fired heater. This feedstock is a light, non-asphaltic vacuum residue.

FILENAME

slide11

FOULING INDEX

100

95

90

85

80

75

70

65

60

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

AREA 1

Readily fouling, Difficult feed.

Advanced design heater required.

AREA 2

Borderline feed tending towards

unacceptable fouling. Advanced

design heater recommended or

conservative conventional design

with on line spalling required.

Relative Fouling Index by Deposit Weight (FIDW)

AREA 3

Acceptable fouling with

conventional heater design.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

FILENAME

Relative Fouling Index by Temperature Difference (FITD)

slide12

HEATER RUN LENGTH IMPROVED BY

1. Improved metallurgy

2. Maintaining lower sodium contents

3. Use of on-line spalling

FILENAME

metallurgy impact on run length
Metallurgy Impact on Run Length
  • Base Material 9 Cr- 1Mo
    • Design Metal Temperatures to 1300°F
    • ‘Base’ Run Length
  • T91 Material
    • Design Metal Temperature to 1330°F (Old API 530)
    • Increased Run Length at Expense of Weldability Issues
  • 347H SS Material
    • Design Metal Temperatures to 1500°F
    • Highest Run Length at Expense of Toughness Issues at Return Bends

FILENAME

slide14

increasing Na+

at constant heater outlet

log Na+

increasing

1/

(run length, ) -1

EFFECT OF FEEDSTOCK Na+ LEVELON COKER HEATER RUN LENGTH

FILENAME

slide15

COKER HEATING FOULING

FW-Langseth On-line Spalling procedure is as effective on double-fired furnaces as it is on single-fired coker furnaces operating on easier-to-process feedstocks.

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delayed coker heaters17

DELAYED COKER HEATERS

CLASSIC SINGLE FIRED DESIGN

Horizontal Tube Box

or

Cabin Heaters

single fired delayed coker
SINGLE FIRED DELAYED COKER -
  • Optimized Firebox Dimensions
    • Optimize Heat Flux Distribution
    • No Flame Impingement
    • Control TMT Profile
  • Bridgewall to Control Heat Input to Each Fluid Pass
  • Symmetrical Piping and Pass Arrangement
  • Classic Box Heater Fabrication Features

FILENAME

single fired coker heaters

Peak heat flux is 80% above average heat flux.

SINGLE-FIRED COKER HEATERS

To ensure long-run lengths and efficient operation, Foster Wheeler incorporates important design features, such as:

  • Firebox dimensions
  • In-tube velocity
  • Burner selection and spacing
  • Burner testing
  • Coil spacing
  • Individual fluid pass controls
  • Independent firing controls

FILENAME

delayed coker heaters23

DELAYED COKER HEATERS

FWFHD DOUBLE FIRED DESIGN

Terrace Wall Design

Completely Isolated Radiant Cells

double fired delayed coker
DOUBLE FIRED DELAYED COKER -
  • Completely Isolated Radiant Boxes
    • Independently Controlled and Fired Passes
    • Highly Predictable Flue Gas Flow Patterns
    • Full Viewing of Tubes
  • Highly Modular Construction Provided
  • Shorter Residence Time
  • Lower Circumferential Film Temperature and TMT
  • Burner and Coil Viewing Accessible From Grade

FILENAME

double fired coker heaters

Peak heat flux is only 20% above average heat flux.

DOUBLE-FIRED COKER HEATERS
  • Residence time reduced by half at constant tube velocity and peak film temperature
  • Optimized coil design:
    • increase average heat flux to maintain film temperature
    • reduce coil volume
  • Features:
    • High in-tube velocity
    • Independent pass control
    • Sloped heater wall for increased flue gas recirculation

FILENAME

delayed coker heaters29

DELAYED COKER HEATERS

FWFHD DOUBLE FIRED DESIGN

Terrace Wall Design

Completely Isolated Tube Passes

double fired delayed coker30
DOUBLE FIRED DELAYED COKER -
  • Adds Convection to Radiant Passes in One Box for complete separation of heater passes
    • Independently Controlled and Fired Passes
    • Each Pass Can be completely and Individually Isolated
  • Typical Use is on Two Pass Units with On-Line Spalling and Steam-Air Decoking Capabilities

FILENAME

delayed coker installations
DELAYED COKER INSTALLATIONS
  • Over 70 Delayed Coker Heater Furnaces have been supplied for installations around the world including:
  • BP Toledo 28,900 BBL/D
  • Shell Oil Deer Park 3@ 26,250 BBL/D
  • LCR Houston 2@ 23,625 BBL/D
  • Premcor Pt. Arthur 3@ 28,000 BBL/D
  • PERM Russia 2@ 22,680 BBL/D
  • Husky Canada 11,000 BBL/D
  • Sincor Venezuela 3@ 32,636 BBL/D
  • Hamaca Venezuela 2@ 33,075 BBL/D

FILENAME

single fired design don ts
Single Fired Design Don’ts
  • Double row roof tubes
  • No bridgewalls or bridgewalls too short
  • Tall radiant coil heights
  • Tubes to the floor
  • Upflow process flow in radiant section
  • Top radiant tube in flow ducts to convection section
  • Convection tubes tangent to ducts from radiant section
  • Many tube diameter changes

FILENAME

double fired design don ts
Double Fired Design Don’ts
  • Staggered row radiant tubes
  • Roof tubes
  • Non-Isolated radiant cells
  • Tall radiant coil heights
  • Tubes to the floor
  • Upflow process flow in radiant section
  • Top radiant tube near flow ducts to convection section
  • Convection tubes tangent to ducts from radiant section
  • Many tube diameter changes

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revamping and debottlenecking
Revamping and Debottlenecking
  • Metallurgy Considerations
  • APH Considerations
  • NOx and Emissions Requirements
  • U-Bends Instead of Plug Headers
  • Enclose U-Bends Inside Radiant Box
  • Convection Section Modifications
  • Radiant Box Modifications
  • Coil Modifications

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troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
  • Fuel Changes
  • Organic vs. Inorganic Fouling
  • Burner Changes and Impact
  • Feedstock Changes
  • Increased Preheat Temperature
  • Velocity Steam Requirements
  • O2 Readings & Tramp Air Considerations
  • Draft Control
  • APH Systems and Heater Balancing

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