Chapter Five. Family Characteristics. Family Systems. No individual can be understood without looking at how he or she fits into the whole of the family. Families need both rules for structure and rules for change.
1. Newly married couple
2. Families with young children
3. Child rearing families
4. Families with adolescents
5. Families launching children
6. Families in later life
Lambie & Daniels-Mohring (1993)
Families with Special Needs Go Through the Same Family Life Cycle but Often Face Additional Issues
3. Added financial burdens
1. Ability to identify the stressor.
2. Viewing the situation as a family problem rather than the problem of one member.
3. Adopting a solution-oriented approach rather than blaming.
4. Showing tolerance for other family members.
5. Commitment/ affection for other family members
6. Evidence of high family cohesion.
7. Evidence of considerable role flexibility.
8. Open and clear communication.
9. Use of resources in and outside family.
10. Lack of physical violence.
11. Lack of substance abuse.
Figley and McCubbin (1983)
1. Know when you are in hard times.
2. Face hard times together.
3. Take your time.
4. Ask for outside help when your family is stuck.
McFadden & Doub (1983)
1. Separation and divorce
a. Impact on children
b. Impact on parents
c. Financial problems
d. Family management problems
e. Personal problems
2. Blended families
a. Clarifying lines of authority
b. Financial issues
c. Loyalty issues
d. Needs for effective communication
3. Other nontraditional families
a. Grandparents or other extended family
c. Same sex
1. Be aware of priority concerns
2. Be able to suggest resources and services
3. Be aware of severe time, energy and financial restrictions
4. Include noncustodial parents in conferences and programs
6. Become familiar with your own family-related values
7. Be able to apprise parents and family members of potential impact of factors on family structure
8. Aid parents in becoming effective in various roles
9. Anticipate atypical behavior in parents and children experiencing turmoil and change
1. Over-representation in special classes
3. Suspensions/ zero tolerance
5. Awareness and acceptance of cultural diversity and individual differences
6. Likenesses vs differences
1. In what ways do middle-class teachers, reflecting the school’s values, single out for criticism differences in children’s behavior and values?
2. What changes should take place for the structure of the school to be flexible enough to accommodate the diverse abilities and interests of a heterogeneous student body?