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Brincar = verbal play (improvised song lyrics with stock refrains) ... Afro-Brazilian urban popular song/dance form. Origins in rural roda de samba: Participatory ...

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slave trade
Slave Trade
  • 1538-1850: approx. 3.5 million slaves from Ghana, Nigeria, Angola, Congo, Mozambique (incl.Yoruba, Ewe, Fon).
  • 1850: slave trade abolished
  • 1871: Law of the Free Womb
  • 1888: Slavery abolished
general characteristics of west african afro brazilian music
General Characteristics of West African/Afro-Brazilian Music
  • Dense textures
  • Interlock
  • Rhythmic complexity (polyrhythm)
  • Open-ended forms
  • Structure based on melodic/rhythmic ostinato patterns
  • Music as means of communal participation
aspects of candombl
Aspects of Candomblé
  • Afro-Brazilian religion
  • Worship of hierarchy of orixás: deities
  • Ceremonies: involves dancing, drumming, singing (in Yoruban), to invite orixás to manifest (spirit possession)
  • Musical characteristics:
    • Call and response
    • Polyrhythms
    • Open-ended forms
    • Specific rhythms for each orixá
    • Hierarchy of drums
master drummer
Master Drummer
  • Candomblé: three drums (atabaque) in hierarchical relationship; directed by master drummer
  • Is oldest male initiate,lead singer,plays any drum he desires; responsible for facilitating spirit possession
  • Plays improvised patterns against rhythmic ostinato patterns of other drums
  • Drums considered sacred: “drum baptism”

Afro-Brazilian art form combining music, dance and martial arts

  • Instruments:
    • Berimbau: musical bow with shaker
    • Pandeiro: similar to tambourine, played with hands
    • Atabaque drums: similar to conga drums, played with hands
    • Agógô: double-headed cowbell, struck with stick
roda de capoeira
Roda de Capoeira
  • Jogar = body play
    • Ginga = basic movement
  • Tocar = musical play
    • Lead berimbau plays “toques” (rhythmic patterns)
    • Directs course of the “game”
  • Brincar = verbal play (improvised song lyrics with stock refrains)
  • Malícia=cunning, trickery (ex. Benção)
samba tudo acaba em samba
Samba“Tudo acaba em samba”
  • Afro-Brazilian urban popular song/dance form
  • Origins in rural roda de samba:
    • Participatory
    • Accompanied by improvised songs and percussion instruments
    • Style: syncopated, call and response vocals, open-ended forms, musical interlock, diatonic melodies
types of samba
Types of Samba
  • Carnival samba (e.g. samba batucada and samba enredo)
    • Characterized by heavy percussion, songs about themes presented in Carnival
  • (Year-round) samba
    • Characterized by light percussion and plucked string accompaniment (guitar, cavaquinho)
    • Songs often satiric, witty, improvised
samba batucada
Samba Batucada
  • Instruments of the Batería:
    • Surdo drums (basic pulse in 2 divided among three sizes of surdo)
    • Pandeiro (sixteenth-note division)
    • Cuíca (accents)
    • Tamborim (syncopation)
    • Caíxa (snare drum)
  • Urban-popular instrumental genre
  • Late 19th c. in Rio de Janeiro
  • Predates Carnival samba
  • Considered “musicians’ music”
  • Performed for hire at parties
  • Played for pleasure in the roda de choro
  • Serves as “Brazilian” musical grounding for instrumentalists of all types
instruments of choro
Instruments of Choro
  • Violão (6- and 7-string)
  • Cavaquinho
  • Pandeiro
  • Melody instrument (flute, clarinet, bandolim, saxophone)
choro genre
Choro Genre
  • Instrumental composition in 2/4
  • Based on formal structure of polka with standard harmonic progressions
  • Lively tempos; syncopation
  • Some improvisation, importance of malícia (playful competition between soloist and accompanist)
choro and villa lobos
Choro and Villa-Lobos
  • Heitor Villa-Lobos (1857-1959)
  • Choro is “the integral translation of the Brazilian soul in the form of music”
choro influence
Choro Influence
  • Played guitar in roda at music store
  • Choro guitar style permeates works
    • Syncopation
    • Active bass lines typical of 7-string guitar in choro
    • Arpeggiated chords
    • Three sixteenth-note pickup typical of choro