African Influences in Brazilian Music - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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African Influences in Brazilian Music

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  1. African Influences in Brazilian Music

  2. Slave Trade • 1538-1850: approx. 3.5 million slaves from Ghana, Nigeria, Angola, Congo, Mozambique (incl.Yoruba, Ewe, Fon). • 1850: slave trade abolished • 1871: Law of the Free Womb • 1888: Slavery abolished

  3. General Characteristics of West African/Afro-Brazilian Music • Dense textures • Interlock • Rhythmic complexity (polyrhythm) • Open-ended forms • Structure based on melodic/rhythmic ostinato patterns • Music as means of communal participation

  4. Candomblé

  5. Aspects of Candomblé • Afro-Brazilian religion • Worship of hierarchy of orixás: deities • Ceremonies: involves dancing, drumming, singing (in Yoruban), to invite orixás to manifest (spirit possession) • Musical characteristics: • Call and response • Polyrhythms • Open-ended forms • Specific rhythms for each orixá • Hierarchy of drums

  6. Master Drummer • Candomblé: three drums (atabaque) in hierarchical relationship; directed by master drummer • Is oldest male initiate,lead singer,plays any drum he desires; responsible for facilitating spirit possession • Plays improvised patterns against rhythmic ostinato patterns of other drums • Drums considered sacred: “drum baptism”

  7. Capoeira Afro-Brazilian art form combining music, dance and martial arts

  8. Capoeira • Instruments: • Berimbau: musical bow with shaker • Pandeiro: similar to tambourine, played with hands • Atabaque drums: similar to conga drums, played with hands • Agógô: double-headed cowbell, struck with stick

  9. Roda de Capoeira • Jogar = body play • Ginga = basic movement • Tocar = musical play • Lead berimbau plays “toques” (rhythmic patterns) • Directs course of the “game” • Brincar = verbal play (improvised song lyrics with stock refrains) • Malícia=cunning, trickery (ex. Benção)

  10. Samba“Tudo acaba em samba” • Afro-Brazilian urban popular song/dance form • Origins in rural roda de samba: • Participatory • Accompanied by improvised songs and percussion instruments • Style: syncopated, call and response vocals, open-ended forms, musical interlock, diatonic melodies

  11. Types of Samba • Carnival samba (e.g. samba batucada and samba enredo) • Characterized by heavy percussion, songs about themes presented in Carnival • (Year-round) samba • Characterized by light percussion and plucked string accompaniment (guitar, cavaquinho) • Songs often satiric, witty, improvised

  12. Samba Batucada • Instruments of the Batería: • Surdo drums (basic pulse in 2 divided among three sizes of surdo) • Pandeiro (sixteenth-note division) • Cuíca (accents) • Tamborim (syncopation) • Caíxa (snare drum)

  13. Samba Batucada Rhythms

  14. Choro • Urban-popular instrumental genre • Late 19th c. in Rio de Janeiro • Predates Carnival samba • Considered “musicians’ music” • Performed for hire at parties • Played for pleasure in the roda de choro • Serves as “Brazilian” musical grounding for instrumentalists of all types

  15. Instruments of Choro • Violão (6- and 7-string) • Cavaquinho • Pandeiro • Melody instrument (flute, clarinet, bandolim, saxophone)

  16. Choro Genre • Instrumental composition in 2/4 • Based on formal structure of polka with standard harmonic progressions • Lively tempos; syncopation • Some improvisation, importance of malícia (playful competition between soloist and accompanist)

  17. Choro and Villa-Lobos • Heitor Villa-Lobos (1857-1959) • Choro is “the integral translation of the Brazilian soul in the form of music”

  18. Choro Influence • Played guitar in roda at music store • Choro guitar style permeates works • Syncopation • Active bass lines typical of 7-string guitar in choro • Arpeggiated chords • Three sixteenth-note pickup typical of choro