Chapter 16: The Reformation in Europe - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 16: The Reformation in Europe

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  1. Chapter 16: The Reformation in Europe The Protestant Reformation

  2. Prelude to the Reformation • What led up to the Reformation? • Christian Humanism • AKA Northern Renaissance humanism • Combined the classic renaissance ideas with goals of reforming the Catholic Church • Classics would include the Bible • Erasmus • Believed Christianity should also show people how to live good lives on a daily basis • Did not believe in pilgrimages and relics • Criticized the Church in hopes of reforming it

  3. Why was Reform Needed? • Popes had negative image • Viewed as more concerned with politics and wealth than helping the people • Local priests were not able to provide proper spiritual help • Unaware of the needs of the people • Increase in indulgences given to wealthy people • Idea was to make money by selling relics to wealthy • Relics were designed to reduce amount of time in purgatory • Rise of Modern Devotion • Stressed importance of teachings of Jesus and less of Church

  4. Martin Luther

  5. Who was Martin Luther? • 1483-1546 • Monk in the Catholic Church • Professor at University of Wittenberg • Philosophy on Salvation • Humans were saved by their faith in God • Had nothing to do with good works like the Church preaches • Became the driving philosophy of the Reformation • The Bible is the only valid source of truth

  6. Luther’s “Ninety-Five Theses” • Posted on October 31, 1517 • What was the purpose? • Attack on the church • Luther was against the selling of indulgences • Used to pay for construction of St. Peter’s Basilica • Believed that indulgences did not forgive sins

  7. Luther’s 95 Theses

  8. Rise of Lutheranism • 1520 • Luther asks for all German princes to break away from the Catholic Church • Attacked the system of sacraments • Believed in only Eucharist and baptism • Believed clergy marry • 1521 • Pope excommunicates Luther • Edict of Worms • Declared all works and actions of Luther illegal • Burned all documents

  9. Rise of Lutheranism • German rulers quickly embraced Luther’s views • Not for religious but political purposes • This solidified the view that the government and not the pope/Catholic was in charge and made decisions • Lutheranism • Luther set example by marrying former nun • Provided model for marriage and family life of clergy • 1524- Peasants’ War • Peasants wanted Luther to be their leader • Told them to support the lords’ not him • Lords called by God to rule • Lost great favor with them

  10. Chapter 16: The Reformation in Europe Spread of Protestantism

  11. Protestantism in Switzerland • Peace of Augsburg (1555) • Ended Christian unity in Europe • Recognized the break off between Protestant and Catholic in Germany • Ulrich Zwingli • Leader of Protestant movement in Switzerland • Priest in Zurich • Different from Lutheranism but still had same basis of change to Catholic Church

  12. Protestantism in Switzerland • Zwingli’s Reforms • Remove all paintings from church walls • Walls will be painted white • Catholic Mass • Replaced with by different sermons • Sought alliance with Luther • Could not agree on sacraments

  13. Protestantism in Switzerland • October 1531 • War breaks out between Catholics and Protestants • Protestant army no match for the Catholics • Zwingli’s Fate • Captured • Cut up into pieces • Pieces burned • Ashes are scattered • Fate of Protestantism in the hands of John Calvin

  14. Protestantism in Switzerland • John Calvin • Institutes of the Christian Religion • His understanding of the Protestant faith • Beliefs • Justification • One must be deemed worthy by God • Predestination • Some people were chosen to be saved while others were chosen to be damned • Can’t be certain of one’s salvation

  15. Reformation in England • Completely unique from all others in Europe • English Reformation based off politics • King Henry VIII • Wanted to divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon • She failed to give him a male heir to the throne • Asked for annulment from Pope

  16. Reformation in England • Henry VIII • Turns to Archbishop of Canterbury for help • He agrees to give annulment • Proceeds to marry Anne Boleyn • She gives birth to a girl • 1534: Act of Supremacy • England broke away from Catholics • Henry named “only supreme head on earth of The new Church of England”

  17. The Anabaptists • Beliefs of the Anabaptists • Complete separation of church and state • Refused to run for office or carry weapons and fight • Adult baptism • Converts had to understand and voluntarily get baptized • Each church in religion chose their ministers • Anyone could be chosen • Women could serve but rarely did

  18. Catholic Reformation • AKA The Counter Reformation • The Catholic response • 3 elements defined it • 1. Established the order of the Jesuits • St. Ignatius of Loyola • Vow of absolute of obedience to pope • Established catholic schools • Used education to get message across

  19. Catholic Reformation • 3 elements defined it • 2. Reform of the papacy • Pope Paul III • Called for reform of Renaissance popes • Too many financial disasters • Established Reform Commission • Church problems blamed on Popes • Corrupt policies the basis of it

  20. Catholic Reformation • 3 elements defined it • 3. The Council of Trent • Ran from 1545-1563 • Met periodically • Final Decrees • Reaffirmed catholic teaching • 7 sacraments upheld • Both faith and good works needed for salvation • Celibacy expected of clergy • Belief in purgatory and indulgences upheld • Selling of indulgences was illegal