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Chapter 9: Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood. Emotional and Personality Development. During early childhood, children must discover who they are and: They discover that conscience must govern exploration and self-observation, self-guidance, self-punishment.

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slide1
Chapter 9:

Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood

slide3
During early childhood, children must discover who they are and:
    • They discover that conscience must govern exploration and self-observation, self-guidance, self-punishment.
    • Disappointment turns to guilt that lowers self-esteem.
    • Their parents can encourage motor play and fantasy.
    • Guilt exists in later life if motor activity is considered bad, questions are seen only as nuisances, and play is stupid.
slide4
Self-understanding: substance and content of one’s self-conceptions, beginning with self-recognition.
  • In early childhood, self-conception is usually in physical and material terms.
  • As children age, there is increased:
    • Use of emotional language.
    • Learning about causes and consequences of feelings.
    • Ability to reflect on emotions.
    • Need to control and manage emotions to meet social standards.
slide5
Self-conscious emotions are pride, guilt, shame, and embarrassment.
  • Girls may show more shame, pride, anxiety, depression, and self-criticism.
  • Moral development are feelings, thoughts, and behaviors about what should be done in interactions.
slide6
Stages of Piaget’s moral development in children:
    • At ages 4-7, they see justice and rules as unchangeable.
    • Between ages 7 and 10 years, there is transition.
    • After 10 years of age: awareness that laws and rules are created by humans, judgment of behavior should be based on intentions and consequences.
  • Views of moral theory:
    • Reinforcement, punishment, and imitation used to explain moral behavior by children.
    • Use of self-control overcomes prohibited impulses; patience and ability to delay gratification are learned.
slide7
Ages 4 to 12 spend most free time exclusively in same-sex groups.
  • After 5, boys tend to associate in large groups, girls prefer groups of two or three.
  • In same-sex play groups:
    • Boys tend to play rough-and-tough and competitively, and show conflict, ego displays, risk taking, and dominance.
    • Girls tend to be collaborative and engage in reciprocity behaviors.
slide8

Same-sex group

Developmental Changes in Percentage of Time Spent in Same-Sex and Mixed-Group Settings

Mixed-sex group

75

50

Percentage of social playtime

A tendency to play in same-sex groups increases between 4 and 6 years of age

25

4.5 years old

6.5 years old

Fig. 9.3

©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

slide10
Parenting styles really affect development:
    • Interactions include punishment, child abuse, co-parenting, time and effort, and nurturing.
  • Four parenting styles:
    • Authoritarian: highly controlling, little discussion (“My way, or else”).
    • Authoritative: limits placed, but also warm, nurturing, encouraging independence within those limits (“Let’s talk about it”).
    • Neglectful: uninvolved in child’s life.
    • Indulgent: involved, but with few demands or restraints.
slide11

Classification of Parenting Styles

Rejecting of and unresponsive to the child

Accepting of and responsive to the child

Demanding, controlling of child

Undemanding, uncontrolling of child

Fig. 9.6

©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

slide12
Authoritative parenting:
    • May be most effective type for variety of reasons.
    • It appears to transcend boundaries of ethnicity, and family structure.
  • Asian parents tend to “train” child.
  • Latino parents tend to encourage family identity and self-development.
  • African American parents tend to use physical punishment more than Whites.
  • Corporal punishment was considered necessary for disciplining children—legal in all states.
corporal punishment in different countries
Corporal Punishment in Different Countries

©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

slide14
Child abuse or maltreatment refers to abuse and neglect.
  • Four main types of child maltreatment (can overlap):
    • Physical abuse: physical injury.
    • Child neglect: physical/emotional/educational neglect or abandonment.
    • Sexual abuse: fondling, rape, incest, intercourse, sodomy, exploitation.
    • Emotional abuse: psychological abuse, verbal abuse, mental injury.
slide15
Culture affects incidence of child abuse.
  • Examine family interactions to understand abuse.

Developmental consequences of abuse:

    • Poor emotional regulation.
    • Attachment problems.
    • Difficulty in school and peer relations.
    • Other psychological problems.
    • Child victims show increased violence in adult relationships.
slide16
In co-parenting, parental cooperation and warmth are linked to prosocial behaviors in children:
    • Good parenting is key factor.
    • Sibling relationships have a strong effect.
  • Birth order:
    • Parents have higher expectations for firstborn.
    • Only child: often achievement-oriented, displays desirable personality traits.
    • By itself, is not a good predictor of behavior.
slide17
Consider age spacing and sex between children, heredity, temperament, and parenting styles for predicting behavior.
  • Children’s families more diverse today:
    • More mothers work outside home, more children in child care.
    • More children under 17 grow up in single-parent homes.
    • Both parents work outside home.
    • Divorced families.
  • Some research finds negative effects if mother works during child’s 1st year.
slide18
Child from divorced family tends to show poorer adjustment, with greatest risk occurring in multiple divorces.
  • The relationship between parents after divorce appears more negative for girls.
  • Custodial- and noncustodial-father families may have greater impact on the sons’ lives.
  • Joint custody may be better for all.
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30

20

10

0

Intact, never divorced

Divorced

Type of family

Divorce and Children’s Emotional Problems

Of children from divorced families, 25% show serious emotional problems (75% did not), compared with only 10% of children from intact, never-divorced families

Percentage of children showing serious emotional problems

Fig. 9.8

©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

slide21
Peers assist a child by:
    • Filling unique role in the culture.
    • Providing information.
    • Giving feedback and evaluation.
  • Good peer relations necessary for social development.
  • Extensive peer interaction during childhood in play.
  • Piaget: play advances cognitive development.
  • Vygotsky: play is excellent for cognitive development.
slide22
Parten identifies 6 types of play:
    • Solitary, unoccupied, onlooker, parallel, associative, and cooperative play.
  • Other types of play:
    • Sensorimotor play (early infancy).
    • Practice play (primarily in infancy).
    • Pretense/symbolic play (9–30 months).
    • Social play (peer interactions).
  • Constructive play increases in preschool years.
  • Games reinforce rules and competition; effects of TV can be very harmful.
slide23

United States

Spain

Canada

Percentage of 9-Year-Old Children Who Report Watching More Than 5 Hours of TV per Weekday

Netherlands

Ireland

Italy

Finland

Denmark

France

Sweden

Germany

Norway

Switzerland

0

5

10

15

20

25

Percentage

Fig. 9.9

©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

slide24

Educational TV Viewing and High School Grade Point Average for Boys

2.9

Amount and patterns of preschool TV viewing have an impact later on boys’ high school GPAs

2.82

2.8

2.7

2.6

2.53

2.48

2.5

2.37

2.4

2.3

Mean high school overall GPA

2.2

2.1

2.0

Quartiles of child informative viewing at age 5

Fig. 9.11

©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

building self esteem in children
Building Self-Esteem in Children
  • Feelings About Self
  • Self-Esteem: A Definition
  • Characteristics of Children with High Self-Esteem
  • Six Ingredients to Build Self-Esteem
    • Youngs, B.B. (1991). The six vital ingredients of self-esteem: And how to develop them in your child. Rawson Associates: N.Y.
four basic needs
Four Basic Needs
  • Nurturance
  • Support
  • Containment
  • Protection