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Environmental Sustainability Initiatives Panel: Water Conservation and Reuse.
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Environmental Sustainability Initiatives Panel: Water Conservation and Reuse Dr. Brian Kiepper Biological & Agricultural Engineering Poultry Science College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences The University of Georgia
Animal Ag Sustainability 1. Environmental 2. Economic
1. Environmental Understanding Water Use What is Water USE? any in-stream or off-stream utilization of surface or ground water What is NON-CONSUMPTIVE USE? What is CONSUMPTIVE USE? the withdrawal of surface or ground water WITH RETURN to the basin of origin the withdrawal of surface or ground water WITHOUT RETURN to the basin of origin
GCSWMP “The Plan”
1. Environmental Poultry Processing Water Use As is typical of many food processing industries, poultry processing is characterized by relatively high water use, most of it for non-consumptive purposes (Kroyer, 1991). Kroyer G., 1991. Food Processing Wastes. In: Bioconversion of Waste Materials to Industrial Products. A. M. Martin (Editor). Elsevier Applied Science, New York, New York. pp. 293-311.
1. Environmental How Much Water Do I CONSUME? NON-CONSUMPTIVE USES: • by-product transport • heat transfer • plant sanitation • product / equipment washing • employee hygiene… CONSUMPTIVE USES: • incorporation in product • evaporation…
1. Environmental How has America’s water use changed over the last 50 years? U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1268 ~500% Increase ~50% Increase
1. Environmental Industrial Water Use Industrial freshwater withdrawals in billion gallons per day (Bgal/d) a – includes public water supply Adapted from Metcalf & Eddy, 2007 The reduction in manufacturing water use is attributed to shifting manufacturing practices, water conservation, limits on industrial wastewater discharges, and increased globalization and outsourcing of industrial activities (Huston et al., 2004)
2. Economic Industrial Water Use Water Waste Intended Water Use Total Water Use Efficient Water Use Water Loss Adapted from GCSWMP, 2008
2. Economic How Much Water Do I CONSUME? You can’t MANAGE what you don’t MEASURE
Water Conservation Water conservation is defined as the beneficial reduction of water use, water waste and/or water loss... - Georgia Comprehensive State-wide Water Management Plan. Section 2: Definitions (40) and Vickers, A. 2001. Handbook of water use and conservation: homes, landscapes, businesses, industries, farms. Waterplow Press. 446 pgs. OR …increasing production without increasing total water use!
Water Reuse Terminology Closed-Loop Regeneration Redistribution Recycling Single-Pass Reconditioned Type A Type B Reclaimed Reuse Multi-Pass Open-Loop Advanced Treatment Type C
Industrial Water Reuse - is the capture and reutilization of water within industrial processes with the intent of reducing total water use or increasing production without increasing total water use. • The 3 general types of Industrial Water Reuse are: • Water Reuse with NO Treatment • Water Reuse with Limited or Targeted Treatment • Water Reuse with Advance or Full Treatment
Industrial Water Reuse Options Basic Water Use Schematic (without any reuse) Operation 1 Freshwater Wastewater Operation 2 Operation 3 Adapted from Mann and Liu, 1999; Metcalf and Eddy, 2007
Industrial Water Reuse Options Option 1: Water Reuse with NO treatment Operation 1 Freshwater Wastewater Operation 2 Reuse Operation 3 Adapted from Mann and Liu, 1999; Metcalf and Eddy, 2007
Industrial Water Reuse Options Option 2: Water Reuse Limited or Targeted Treatment (treatment referred to as reclamation, regeneration) Operation 1 Waste water Freshwater Operation 2 Treatment Operation 3 a.k.a. - Open-Loop - Type A, B Adapted from Mann and Liu, 1999; Metcalf and Eddy, 2007
Industrial Water Reuse Options • Single point to single point • chiller – recondition – chiller • water and BTU recovery • Multiple point to multiple point • chiller and final bird washer – recondition – scalder, evisceration, IOBW • greater water volume USDA – FSIS Terminology see § 416.2(g) Adapted from Presentation by Gary Engstrom, Environmental Management Corporation, 2007
Industrial Water Reuse Options Option 3: with Full Treatment & Recycle Operation 1 Freshwater Operation 2 Treatment a.k.a. - Advanced Treatment Reuse - Closed-Loop - Type C - ZLD – “Zero Liquid Discharge” Operation 3 Adapted from Mann and Liu, 1999; Metcalf and Eddy, 2007
Industrial Water Reuse Concerns • Pathogenic Organisms • Corrosion • Scaling • Biological Fouling • Accumulation of persistent wastewater constituents