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Chapter 13 Social Change Colin Crouch Social Change The rise of the services economy Changes in gender roles Demographic trends and family changes The decline of European religion Introduction Politics operates within, and interacts with, the society around it

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social change
Social Change
  • The rise of the services economy
  • Changes in gender roles
  • Demographic trends and family changes
  • The decline of European religion
introduction
Introduction
  • Politics operates within, and interacts with, the society around it
  • Social change is seemingly a constant!
  • Current social change:
    • Central and eastern Europe
    • Changing gender relations
    • Changing family and demographic structure
the rise of the services economy
The rise of the services economy
  • Past three decades have witnessed shift in workforce from manufacturing industry to services
  • The diversity of services:
    • Distributive
    • Business services
    • Social and community services
    • Personal services
effects of service economy
Effects of service economy
  • Rise in participation of women in paid employment
  • Rise in education level of population
  • Shift amongst low-skilled workers, from manufacturing to services
changes in gender roles
Changes in gender roles
  • Why are more women in paid work?
  • Employment-creating spiral of women’s employment
  • Diversity between countries in terms of female employment
  • This diversity is in part due to the different effects of different public policies
demographic trends and family changes
Demographic trends and family changes
  • Death rates in decline (in west Europe)
  • Birth rates in decline
  • Ageing society
  • Smaller households
  • Immigration
  • Cultural pluralism
the decline of european religion
The decline of European religion
  • Religion is in decline in Europe
  • Except among some immigrant communities
  • The anticipated Christian renaissance in post-communist Europe has not materialized
  • A strong church has tended to polarize the population
summary
Summary
  • 19th and 20th century manufacturing economy is turning into a services economy
  • 4 different service sectors
  • Rise in female employment goes hand-in-hand with service economy in west Europe
  • Significant changes in demographic and family patterns
social change and the political agenda
Social change and the political agenda
  • Globalization, employment change, and the rise of the services economy have all featured in the political agenda
  • Adaptation challenges for the welfare state
  • Immigration is a political issue
  • Disconnection between political elite and rapidly changing European society?