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Agenda Introduction Positioning of PAN/LAN/WAN Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and 802.11 Personal Area Networks (PAN) and Bluetooth Future Wireless Technologies IBM Mobile Wireless Technology Penetration of Technology Opportunities for Connection WAN LAN PAN Technology Positioning

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  • Introduction
    • Positioning of PAN/LAN/WAN
    • Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and 802.11
    • Personal Area Networks (PAN) and Bluetooth
  • Future Wireless Technologies
  • IBM Mobile Wireless Technology




Technology Positioning



Wireless Technology


(Open areas)




(10’s-100’s of meters)


(Office, School, Airport, Hotel)

Person Space

(office, briefcase, person)


(meters to 10’s of meters)



Augment Wired LANs

1. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN)

2. WLAN Components

3. IEEE 802.11 ?

4. Mixing Vendor Equipment

5. Wireless and wired LAN interoperability

6. WLAN Range

7. Access Points

8. Roaming

9. Using a WLAN to Interconnect two LANs

10. WLAN Scenarios

11. Security

12. Technology Comparisons


LAN Access Point



Ad hoc


Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN)

  • Two or more computers connected wirelessly using standard network protocols
  • The current buzzword however generally refers to wireless LANs (WLAN).
  • Controlled by a standards committee (IEEE 802.11)
  • WLAN solutions for:
    • Business
    • Education
    • Applications where network wiring is impossible
      • Warehousing
      • Point-of-sale handheld equipment.

WLAN Topologies

There are two kinds of wireless networks:

1) An ad-hoc, or peer-to-peer wireless networks

  • Each computer communicates directly with each other to: send files, share printers, work collaboratively
  • They may not be able to access wired LAN resources, unless one of the computers acts as a bridge to the wired LAN using special software.

2)Infrastructure wireless networks (access points, hardware or software)

  • Access point acts like a hub, providing connectivity for the wireless computers. It can connect (or "bridge") the wireless LAN to a wired LAN, allowing wireless computer access to LAN resources, such as file servers or the Internet.


Dedicated hardware access points (HAP)



Wired Network



Access Point


Wireless Network



Software Access Points which run on a computer equipped with a wireless network interface card as used in an ad-hoc or peer-to-peer wireless network






Access Point

Wired Network

Wireless Network





IEEE 802.11

Wireless networking hardware requires the use of underlying technology that deals with radio frequencies as well as data transmission.

The most widely used standard is 802.11 produced by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE).

This is a standard defining all aspects of Radio Frequency Wireless networking.

802.11 was ratified in 1997 at speeds of 1- 2 Mb/s

The 802.11b extension runs at 1, 2, 5.5 and 11 Mb/s


IEEE 802.11

  • 802.11a is a proposed spec running in the 5GHz IBM band with speeds of 54Mb/s scheduled for 2002
    • But range is less (more like 10m)
  • The 802.15 Coexistence Task Group is addressing interoperability between low-power wireless devices (Bluetooth) and 802.11b. Completion is scheduled for 2001
  • IBM is a member of 802.11 and 802.15

Mixing vendor equipment

  • Because most wireless networking hardware vendors support the 802.11 standard they can inter-operate.
  • Verification is recommended because there are two different modulation techniques:
    • Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)
    • Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
    • They are not interoperable.
  • When purchasing wireless networking hardware from separate vendors be sure to obtain guarantees from the vendors that the hardware will inter-operate and follows the standards.

Mixing vendor equipment

  • Within a short time all new wireless cards, like Ethernet cards, will become inexpensive, ubiquitous and totally interoperable.
  • The latest version of the standard (802.11b) defines 11mbps with support for the older standard of 1mbps and 2mbps speeds. This provides compatibility with different or older equipment.
  • Note that this new standard covers DS-type Networks, not FH types.
  • At this point mixing Access Points is not recommended, unless it has the Wi-Fi(Wireless Fidelity)

logo from WECA (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Association)


Wireless and Wired LAN Interoperability

The Access Point acts as a “Bridge” between the wireless and wired networks

Hardware access points are available with various types of network interfaces, such as Ethernet or Token Ring

Software access point may also be used


WLAN Range

Each access point has a finite range

The distance varies depending upon the environment; indoor, outdoor, building construction.

Operating at the limits of the range reduces performance.

Typical indoor ranges are 20-50 meters, outdoor are 100-200 meters

Longer ranges are possible; performance will degrade with distance.

Using multiple Access Points will extend the range


Access Points

Inexpensive access points have a recommended limit of 10

More expensive access points support up to 100 wireless connections.

Using more computers than recommended will degrade performance and reliability

Multiple access points can be connected to a wired LAN, or to a second WLAN.

Functions vary by manufacturer



  • A wireless computer can "roam" from one access point to another
  • Completely transparent to the user
  • Some access point configurations require security authentication when swapping access points, usually in the form of a password dialog box.
  • Access points are required to have overlapping wireless areas to achieve this.

Using a WLAN to interconnect two LANs

  • WLAN offers a cost-effective solution to users with difficult physical installations such as:
    • campuses
    • hospitals
    • businesses with more than one location in immediate proximity but separated by public thoroughfare.
  • This type of installation requires two access points.
  • Each access point acts as a bridge or router connecting its own LAN to the wireless connection.
  • The wireless connection allows the two access points to communicate with each other, and therefore interconnect the two LAN's.

WLAN Scenarios

Mobile users, both on and off “campus”

Where physical wiring is difficult or impossible

Connecting small groups to a larger work environment.

Wireless networking in these environments is a very cost effective alternative

Temporary wireless LANs can easily be created for exhibitions, school or business projects, all without any trailing cabling.



  • Potential security issues; physical access not required.
  • 802.11 wireless communications cannot be received nor decoded by simple scanners or short wave receivers.
  • However, eavesdropping is possible using special equipment.
  • 802.11 WLAN have a function called WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy); a form of encryption.
  • Access Points can control access via unique MAC addresses.
  • Virtual Private Networking (VPN) techniques will work over wireless networks in the same way as traditional wired networks. This is the best approach.

WLAN Security: SSID

Network access control can be implemented using an SSID associated with an AP or group of APs.

The SSID provides a mechanism to "segment"a wireless network into multiple networks serviced by one or more APs.

Each AP is programmed with an SSID corresponding to a specific wireless network.

To access this network, client computers must be configured with the correct SSID.

The SSID acts as a simple password


WLAN Security: MAC Filtering

A client computer can be identified by the unique MAC address of its 802.11 network card.

Each AP can be programmed with a list of MAC addresses associated with the client computers allowed to access the AP.

If a client's MAC address is not included in this list, the client is not allowed to associate with the AP.  

MAC address filtering provides good security, but is best suited to small networks.

Each AP must be manually programmed with a list of MAC addresses, and the list must be kept up-to-date.


WLAN Security: WEP

WEP provides encrypted communication

All clients and APs on a wireless network use the same key

The key resides in the client computer and in each AP

Support for WEP is standard

WEP specifies the use of a 64-bit encryption key

Implementations of non-Wi-Fi 128-bit key encryption exists

The 802.11 standard does not specify a key management protocol, so all keys on a network must be managed manually


WLAN Security: VPN

A VPN solution for wireless access is the most suitable alternative to WEP and MAC address filtering.

VPN solutions are already widely deployed to provide remote workers with secure access to the network via the Internet.

In this remote user application, the VPN provides a secure, dedicated path (or "tunnel") over an "untrusted" network-in this case, the Internet.

Various tunneling protocols are used in conjunction with standard, centralized authentication solutions,such as Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) servers.


WLAN Security: VPN

VPN technology can also be used for secure wireless access; the "untrusted" network is the wireless network.

The APs are configured for open access with no WEP encryption, but wireless access is isolated from the enterprise network by the VPN server and a VLAN between the APs and the VPN servers.

The APs should still be configured with SSIDs for segmentation.

Authentication and full encryption over the wireless network is provided through the VPN servers that also act as gateways.

Unlike the WEP key and MAC address filtering approaches, the VPN-based solution is scalable to a very large number of users.  

Section End


Cell phone

Modem Access Point




Personal Area “Connectivity”

Personal Area Networks (PAN) and Bluetooth

1. What is Bluetooth?

2. Characteristics?

3. Usage scenarios: Today/Tomorrow?

4. 802.11 vs. Bluetooth vs. IR

5. Security

6. IBM’s Contribution


What is Bluetooth....

Defacto standard for wireless Personal Connectivitytechnology

Specification for small-form factor, low-cost, short range radio links between mobile PCs, mobile phones and other portable devices.

The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) is an industry group consisting of leaders in the telecommunications and computing industries that are driving development of the technology and bringing it to market.

IBM, Toshiba, Ericsson, Nokia, Intel - Motorola, Microsoft, Lucent and 3Com - plus 2000+ other companies

bluetooth market potential
Bluetooth Market Potential

W/W Bluetooth Enabled Equipment Forecast (Units in Millions)

Source : Cahners In Stat July 2000



Operates in the 2.4 GHz Industrial-Scientific-Medical (ISM) band at a data rate of 721Kb/s

Uses Frequency Hopping(FH) spread spectrum, which divides the frequency band into a number of channels (2.402 - 2.480 GHz yielding 79 channels). 1600 hops/sec.

During a connection, radio transceivers hop from one channel to another in a pseudo-random fashion, determined by the Master.

Supports up to 8 devices in a piconet (1 master and up to 7 slaves sharing a channel).

Up to 10 piconets can combine to form scatternets (scaling).



A collection of devices

Connected via Bluetooth in an ad hoc fashion.

Starts with two devices, and may grow to eight (including the master)

Master sets the clock and hopping pattern.

However, when establishing a piconet, one unit will act as a master and the other(s) as slave(s) for the duration of the piconet connection.

A Scatternet is the linking of multiple co-located piconets through the sharing of common master or slave devices.



Built-in security.

Non line-of-sight transmission through walls and briefcases.


Supports both voice and data services; easy integration of Serial links and TCP/IP for networking

Regulated by governments worldwide, even France !

Supports both one-to-one and one-to-many networking topologies

Devices must be in a 10 meter radius for communications to occur.

bluetooth protocol stack
Bluetooth Protocol Stack



Lower Transport



Upper Transport


















Network Topologies



(generally Serial mode)

(generally TCP/IP mode)


Key Notebook Usage Models

  • Bluetooth Usage Models for Notebooks
    • Dial-Up Networking via cell phone
    • Syncing
    • File Transfer
  • Target Devices
    • Cellphone
    • Desktop
    • Handheld
    • Other Notebook

Dial-up Networking


File Transfer


Key Handheld Usage Models

  • Bluetooth Usage Models for Handhelds
    • Dial-up Networking via Cell phone
    • Syncing
    • File Transfer (business cards)
    • Target Devices
    • Cell phone
    • Desktop
    • Notebook
    • Other handheld

Dial-up Networking


File Transfer


Key Desktop Usage Models

Bluetooth Usage Models for Desktop


File Transfer

Lan Access for


Target Devices




File Transfer


Other Usage Scenarios




Data Access Points


Bluetooth Access to WAN

A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area.

Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs).

Computers connected to a WAN are often connected through PSTNs. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites. The largest WAN in existence is the Internet.


Future Usage Scenarios


Personal Area Networking


Wake on Bluetooth

Human Interface Devices


Walk-up Printing

Hidden Computing

Instant Postcard


Cordless Computer



LAN Access



Dial-Up Networking

File Transfer


Point to Point

Today Tomorrow The Future


Future Usage Scenarios

Standard Connectivity

Today: Many Cable Connections

  • Serial
  • Parallel
  • Mouse
  • Keyboard
  • Floppy
  • Audio
  • IR
  • USB
  • Video
  • Docking
  • Power

Adds weight and cost

Decreases reliability


Future Usage Scenarios

Standard Connectivity

Today: Many Cable Connections

  • Serial
  • Parallel
  • Mouse
  • Keyboard
  • Floppy
  • Audio
  • IR
  • USB
  • Video
  • Docking
  • Power

Tomorrow: Fewer Cables


  • USB
  • Video
  • Docking
  • Power

Reduces weight and cost

Increases reliability

Adds weight and cost

Decreases reliability


Future Usage Scenarios

Personal Area Networking

Spontaneous / ad-hoc networking

Computer Supported Cooperative Work

(CSCW) environments

Workgroup collaboration

Between many different devices

PC, PDA, Printer,

Mobile phone, Communicator,

Digital Camera (Still & Video)

Digital TV, MP3 Player


Slave-to-slave communication

is through the master


Prototype work by Pervasive group

Walk up “push” of adverts and services.

Demo uses IBM Research Blue Drekar stack available from Alphaworks.

Contact Yook Siong Chin.

location aware services
Location Aware Services
  • NOT Location Based Services
    • eg - Where is nearest xyz ?
    • Pay for vending.
  • But AWARE of the user
    • anticipate needs
    • prepare and be ready to interact
    • only need to know that the user is present
      • or indeed no longer present
    • Bluetooth device eg Phone or PDA is ideal.
      • Carried with user
      • Individual
total effect real ease of use
Total effect = real ease of use
  • Come into office
    • PC unlocks
    • Buddy status says user at desk
    • Phone calls go to desk phone
  • Go to lab
    • Office PC locks up
    • Buddy status says away from desk
    • Lab lights turn on
    • Phone calls go to lab
  • Go to lunch
    • lab lights go off
    • phone calls go to mobile
  • Go back to office
    • PC unlocks
    • Buddy status says user at desk
    • Phone calls go to desk phone
  • etc...

Without pressing a single button !



Unique MAC address for every Bluetooth device

Bluetooth has built-in encryption and authentication

In addition a frequency-hopping scheme with 1600 hops/sec is employed.

All of this, together with an automatic output power adaptation to reduce the range exactly to requirement, makes the system extremely difficult to eavesdrop


Security Implementations

Security mode 1 (non-secure).

    • A device does not initiate any security procedures.
  • Security mode 2 (service-level enforcement security).
    • A device does not initiate security procedures before channel establishment at the service level. This mode allows different and flexible access policies for applications, and is used especially for running applications with different security requirements in parallel.
  • Security mode 3 (link-level enforced security).
    • A device allows only authenticated connections.
  • Bluetooth technology has three security attributes
    • Authorization
    • Authentication
    • Encryption.

Security Implementations

  • Authorization
    • Database of services which a device has authorization to use
  • Authentication
    • The user can choose to "auto" trust devices or "manually" trust devices.
    • Authentication is accomplished using a challenge-response scheme using symmetric link keys.
    • If the devices do not share a link key, one is created through a process called "pairing" and based on a shared secret association, like a PIN code.
    • If a device does not have a mechanism to enter a PIN, a restricted form link key, called a unit key, is generated based on the device's address and random number.
  • Encryption can only be activated after authentication. Encryption is based on a stream cipher easily implemented in hardware or software.

IBM's Contribution to the SIG

IBM is one of the original 5 founding members.

IBM authored the discovery protocol (discovery protocol is a method to explore and discovery Bluetooth devices and services within range)

IBM contributed to the lower layer protocol that makes up the entire Bluetooth protocol stack (link level protocol)

IBM contributed to the Bluetooth world-wide regulatory working bodies to harmonize the 2.4GHz frequency spectrum use for Bluetooth and other government agency requirements.

IBM funds and contributes to many of the the organization’s events.

IBM is leading the effort to standardize IEEE 802.15, which will embrace Bluetooth as a short range wireless standard.

Section End


Which Technology is Better?

What do you want to do?

For connecting devices in your

For connecting clients to your

“Personal Domain”...

LAN Infrastructure...

Campus wide

) ) )

or a public one

or someone else’s


) ) )

Bluetooth is the right choice

802.11b WLAN is the right choice


Which Technology is Better?

For creating an ad hoc Peer-to-Peer Network

Either would suffice

Bluetooth: One-to-many

802.11b: Many-to-many


  • Technology install base
  • Size of the workgroup
  • Extent of the CSCW effort

(Computer Supported Cooperative Work)

other wireless technologies
Other Wireless Technologies

uwb impulse radio



UWB – Impulse Radio
  • Ultra Wide Band
    • Uses picosecond mono-pulses
      • Creates very wide radio spectrum
      • Down in noise floor (-30 to -60dB)
    • Requires very accurate timebase
      • Normally based on PPM techniques
    • But can deliver high data rates (80+ Mbs)
    • At very low power (µW)

Fourier Transform of infinitely narrow pulse = infinitely wide frequency spectrum

example pulse link
Example: Pulse-LINK™



Pulse~LINK, Inc.

  • Currently used in military applications
  • Squirt radios
    • Difficult to detect / intercept
    • Low power for data rate means more portable
  • Pulsed Radar
    • Can “see through” obstacles
    • Difficult to detect and protect against
  • Not licensed for public use
    • Cuts across most currently licensed bands
    • Backers claim no need as there will be no interference to normal equipment
    • Others doubt that – they say the background noise will increase and some frequencies may be more impacted than others as pulses are not true impulse shape
  • Wide frequency range helps with transmission through obstacles
    • Like bodies, walls, furniture
    • Harder to shield against
    • Helps Omni-directional transmission
  • No studies on health implications
    • Although very low power – what are the effects of continuous impulses across wide freq range ?
smart dust
Smart Dust
  • Target is sub mm sized devices
  • Free floating in air
  • Containing sensors
    • Temp, acceleration, pressure, chemical, etc
  • And communications to other particles
    • 5 – 10 m range
    • 20kbs
    • 900MHz radio
    • Or km range via laser

the challenge for wearables
The Challenge for Wearables
  • Need to interconnect components
  • & connect within PAN to other devices
  • & connect outside of PAN

UWB has lots of promise – low power – data rates high enough

But no real interoperability standards between devices

Not many off the shelf components – expensive (for now)

Hign frequencies mean CMOS fab unlikely

Probably needs to support existing standards

Most likely Bluetooth

But devices may will switch to UWB or similar

Definitely needs to support existing standards

Maybe via CPU point

802.11b/a too power hungry for WAN wearable use

Section End


IBM Wireless Technologies

1) Bluetooth: PC Card and ThinkPad UltraPort

2) 802.11b PC Card, ThinkPad UltraPort and Access Point

3) ThinkPad and WorkPad Proven products

4) Other products “available”



IBM High Rate

Wireless LAN PC Card

IBM High Rate

Wireless LAN Access Point

£127 list price - 128bit

£105 list price - 64 bit

Plugs into the ThinkPad’s CardBus slot

Provides wireless access to corporate LAN from anywhere within a 45-90m radius

Supports speeds from 2 to 11 Mbps

64 bit encryption (WEP) or 128 bit

£486 IBM Web price

Bridges to the wired corporate LAN

Allows the user to roam within coverage area

Can support multiple users



Ann: 9/5 GA: October

Ann: 1Q 2001

£143 list price

£127 list price

Bluetooth PC Card

For Legacy Devices


Bluetooth UltraPort

For Optimal Performance


Designed to replace peripheral cables for PDAs, printers, cameras, etc.

Designed for personal space connectivity

Connectivity range of 10 meters

Nominal data rate of 1 Mb/s

Built-in encryption


Cellular Phone BT Options



Ericsson Cell Phone

Ericsson Headset R520m, T39m

Wireless access to Internet and corporate networks

Wireless connection to ThinkPad

Non-directional; phone can be in your briefcase

Wirelessly update your phone’s address book from your system

Insulates you from rapid changes in cellular networks


Bluetooth Options

Nokia Bluetooth

“battery” for 6210

& CF 1 card

GN Netcom 9000


TDK Blue5 clip for PalmV

Section End


IBM Research Protoype

This is NOT a product

Linux based watch / pda


Runs X-clock really well !

Also now includes Bluetooth

Supports Sync , DUN and Audio

Current demos include PIM sync, and control of PC.

shrinking components disk drives

2000 – IBM Launches 1st GB Micro Drive

  • Size of Coin
  • Weighs 25 g
  • Costs < $500
Shrinking Components – Disk Drives

1980 – IBM Launches 1st GB Disk

  • Size of a Refrigerator
  • Weighs 250 kg
  • Costs $40,000

1 GB is :

  • 2500 high resolution photos, or
  • 1000 200 page books, or
  • 18 hours high quality music.
devices that answer back
Devices that Answer Back . . . !

Ask Question

  • Standard Palm Pilot
  • Speech Co-Processor
    • Speech to Text
    • Text to Speech
  • Technology Demonstrator
  • Progressing with Device Manufacturers
  • Now runs on standard hPaq

Replies by Showing & Speaking Information

visual interaction
Visual Interaction
  • Vision Pad prototype:
    • Transparent head mounted display
    • Handheld controller
    • Speech input
  • Augmented realityconcept – sign recognition and translation

IBM Pervasive Computing


Bluetooth SIG


Shameless Plug for Book

  • Bluetooth Revealed, published by Prentice-Hall, September 2000

AU-Systems - good Bluetooth White Paper


UWB – Impulse Radio



? ? ? ? ?