Agenda Introduction Positioning of PAN/LAN/WAN Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and 802.11 Personal Area Networks (PAN) and Bluetooth Future Wireless Technologies IBM Mobile Wireless Technology Penetration of Technology Opportunities for Connection WAN LAN PAN Technology Positioning
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(10’s-100’s of meters)
(Office, School, Airport, Hotel)
(office, briefcase, person)
(meters to 10’s of meters)
Augment Wired LANs
1. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN)
2. WLAN Components
3. IEEE 802.11 ?
4. Mixing Vendor Equipment
5. Wireless and wired LAN interoperability
6. WLAN Range
7. Access Points
9. Using a WLAN to Interconnect two LANs
10. WLAN Scenarios
12. Technology Comparisons
LAN Access Point
There are two kinds of wireless networks:
1) An ad-hoc, or peer-to-peer wireless networks
2)Infrastructure wireless networks (access points, hardware or software)
Dedicated hardware access points (HAP)
Software Access Points which run on a computer equipped with a wireless network interface card as used in an ad-hoc or peer-to-peer wireless network
Wireless networking hardware requires the use of underlying technology that deals with radio frequencies as well as data transmission.
The most widely used standard is 802.11 produced by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE).
This is a standard defining all aspects of Radio Frequency Wireless networking.
802.11 was ratified in 1997 at speeds of 1- 2 Mb/s
The 802.11b extension runs at 1, 2, 5.5 and 11 Mb/s
logo from WECA (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Association)
The Access Point acts as a “Bridge” between the wireless and wired networks
Hardware access points are available with various types of network interfaces, such as Ethernet or Token Ring
Software access point may also be used
Each access point has a finite range
The distance varies depending upon the environment; indoor, outdoor, building construction.
Operating at the limits of the range reduces performance.
Typical indoor ranges are 20-50 meters, outdoor are 100-200 meters
Longer ranges are possible; performance will degrade with distance.
Using multiple Access Points will extend the range
Inexpensive access points have a recommended limit of 10
More expensive access points support up to 100 wireless connections.
Using more computers than recommended will degrade performance and reliability
Multiple access points can be connected to a wired LAN, or to a second WLAN.
Functions vary by manufacturer
Mobile users, both on and off “campus”
Where physical wiring is difficult or impossible
Connecting small groups to a larger work environment.
Wireless networking in these environments is a very cost effective alternative
Temporary wireless LANs can easily be created for exhibitions, school or business projects, all without any trailing cabling.
Network access control can be implemented using an SSID associated with an AP or group of APs.
The SSID provides a mechanism to "segment"a wireless network into multiple networks serviced by one or more APs.
Each AP is programmed with an SSID corresponding to a specific wireless network.
To access this network, client computers must be configured with the correct SSID.
The SSID acts as a simple password
A client computer can be identified by the unique MAC address of its 802.11 network card.
Each AP can be programmed with a list of MAC addresses associated with the client computers allowed to access the AP.
If a client's MAC address is not included in this list, the client is not allowed to associate with the AP.
MAC address filtering provides good security, but is best suited to small networks.
Each AP must be manually programmed with a list of MAC addresses, and the list must be kept up-to-date.
WEP provides encrypted communication
All clients and APs on a wireless network use the same key
The key resides in the client computer and in each AP
Support for WEP is standard
WEP specifies the use of a 64-bit encryption key
Implementations of non-Wi-Fi 128-bit key encryption exists
The 802.11 standard does not specify a key management protocol, so all keys on a network must be managed manually
A VPN solution for wireless access is the most suitable alternative to WEP and MAC address filtering.
VPN solutions are already widely deployed to provide remote workers with secure access to the network via the Internet.
In this remote user application, the VPN provides a secure, dedicated path (or "tunnel") over an "untrusted" network-in this case, the Internet.
Various tunneling protocols are used in conjunction with standard, centralized authentication solutions,such as Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) servers.
VPN technology can also be used for secure wireless access; the "untrusted" network is the wireless network.
The APs are configured for open access with no WEP encryption, but wireless access is isolated from the enterprise network by the VPN server and a VLAN between the APs and the VPN servers.
The APs should still be configured with SSIDs for segmentation.
Authentication and full encryption over the wireless network is provided through the VPN servers that also act as gateways.
Unlike the WEP key and MAC address filtering approaches, the VPN-based solution is scalable to a very large number of users.
Modem Access Point
Personal Area “Connectivity”
Personal Area Networks (PAN) and Bluetooth
1. What is Bluetooth?
3. Usage scenarios: Today/Tomorrow?
4. 802.11 vs. Bluetooth vs. IR
6. IBM’s Contribution
Defacto standard for wireless Personal Connectivitytechnology
Specification for small-form factor, low-cost, short range radio links between mobile PCs, mobile phones and other portable devices.
The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) is an industry group consisting of leaders in the telecommunications and computing industries that are driving development of the technology and bringing it to market.
IBM, Toshiba, Ericsson, Nokia, Intel - Motorola, Microsoft, Lucent and 3Com - plus 2000+ other companies
W/W Bluetooth Enabled Equipment Forecast (Units in Millions)
Source : Cahners In Stat July 2000
Operates in the 2.4 GHz Industrial-Scientific-Medical (ISM) band at a data rate of 721Kb/s
Uses Frequency Hopping(FH) spread spectrum, which divides the frequency band into a number of channels (2.402 - 2.480 GHz yielding 79 channels). 1600 hops/sec.
During a connection, radio transceivers hop from one channel to another in a pseudo-random fashion, determined by the Master.
Supports up to 8 devices in a piconet (1 master and up to 7 slaves sharing a channel).
Up to 10 piconets can combine to form scatternets (scaling).
A collection of devices
Connected via Bluetooth in an ad hoc fashion.
Starts with two devices, and may grow to eight (including the master)
Master sets the clock and hopping pattern.
However, when establishing a piconet, one unit will act as a master and the other(s) as slave(s) for the duration of the piconet connection.
A Scatternet is the linking of multiple co-located piconets through the sharing of common master or slave devices.
Non line-of-sight transmission through walls and briefcases.
Supports both voice and data services; easy integration of Serial links and TCP/IP for networking
Regulated by governments worldwide, even France !
Supports both one-to-one and one-to-many networking topologies
Devices must be in a 10 meter radius for communications to occur.
(generally Serial mode)
(generally TCP/IP mode)
Bluetooth Usage Models for Desktop
Lan Access for
Data Access Points
A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area.
Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs).
Computers connected to a WAN are often connected through PSTNs. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites. The largest WAN in existence is the Internet.
Personal Area Networking
Wake on Bluetooth
Human Interface Devices
Point to Point
Today Tomorrow The Future
Today: Many Cable Connections
Adds weight and cost
Today: Many Cable Connections
Tomorrow: Fewer Cables
Reduces weight and cost
Adds weight and cost
Personal Area Networking
Spontaneous / ad-hoc networking
Computer Supported Cooperative Work
Between many different devices
PC, PDA, Printer,
Mobile phone, Communicator,
Digital Camera (Still & Video)
Digital TV, MP3 Player
is through the master
Walk up “push” of adverts and services.
Demo uses IBM Research Blue Drekar stack available from Alphaworks.
Contact Yook Siong Chin.
Without pressing a single button !
Unique MAC address for every Bluetooth device
Bluetooth has built-in encryption and authentication
In addition a frequency-hopping scheme with 1600 hops/sec is employed.
All of this, together with an automatic output power adaptation to reduce the range exactly to requirement, makes the system extremely difficult to eavesdrop
Security mode 1 (non-secure).
IBM is one of the original 5 founding members.
IBM authored the discovery protocol (discovery protocol is a method to explore and discovery Bluetooth devices and services within range)
IBM contributed to the lower layer protocol that makes up the entire Bluetooth protocol stack (link level protocol)
IBM contributed to the Bluetooth world-wide regulatory working bodies to harmonize the 2.4GHz frequency spectrum use for Bluetooth and other government agency requirements.
IBM funds and contributes to many of the the organization’s events.
IBM is leading the effort to standardize IEEE 802.15, which will embrace Bluetooth as a short range wireless standard.
What do you want to do?
For connecting devices in your
For connecting clients to your
) ) )
or a public one
or someone else’s
) ) )
Bluetooth is the right choice
802.11b WLAN is the right choice
For creating an ad hoc Peer-to-Peer Network
Either would suffice
(Computer Supported Cooperative Work)
fUWB – Impulse Radio
Fourier Transform of infinitely narrow pulse = infinitely wide frequency spectrum
UWB has lots of promise – low power – data rates high enough
But no real interoperability standards between devices
Not many off the shelf components – expensive (for now)
Hign frequencies mean CMOS fab unlikely
Probably needs to support existing standards
Most likely Bluetooth
But devices may will switch to UWB or similar
Definitely needs to support existing standards
Maybe via CPU point
802.11b/a too power hungry for WAN wearable use
1) Bluetooth: PC Card and ThinkPad UltraPort
2) 802.11b PC Card, ThinkPad UltraPort and Access Point
3) ThinkPad and WorkPad Proven products
4) Other products “available”
IBM High Rate
Wireless LAN PC Card
IBM High Rate
Wireless LAN Access Point
£127 list price - 128bit
£105 list price - 64 bit
Plugs into the ThinkPad’s CardBus slot
Provides wireless access to corporate LAN from anywhere within a 45-90m radius
Supports speeds from 2 to 11 Mbps
64 bit encryption (WEP) or 128 bit
£486 IBM Web price
Bridges to the wired corporate LAN
Allows the user to roam within coverage area
Can support multiple users
Ann: 9/5 GA: October
Ann: 1Q 2001
£143 list price
£127 list price
Bluetooth PC Card
For Legacy Devices
For Optimal Performance
Designed to replace peripheral cables for PDAs, printers, cameras, etc.
Designed for personal space connectivity
Connectivity range of 10 meters
Nominal data rate of 1 Mb/s
Ericsson Cell Phone
Ericsson Headset R520m, T39m
Wireless access to Internet and corporate networks
Wireless connection to ThinkPad
Non-directional; phone can be in your briefcase
Wirelessly update your phone’s address book from your system
Insulates you from rapid changes in cellular networks
“battery” for 6210
& CF 1 card
GN Netcom 9000
TDK Blue5 clip for PalmV
This is NOT a product
Linux based watch / pda
Runs X-clock really well !
Also now includes Bluetooth
Supports Sync , DUN and Audio
Current demos include PIM sync, and control of PC.
Replies by Showing & Speaking Information
IBM Pervasive Computing
Shameless Plug for Book
AU-Systems - good Bluetooth White Paper
UWB – Impulse Radio
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