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Carbon and Molecular Diversity. An Introduction to Organic Chemistry. Organic Chemistry. Compounds containing Carbon are said to be Organic The study of carbon compounds is called Organic Chemistry Organic compounds come in a wide range of shapes and sizes. Electron Configuration.

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carbon and molecular diversity

Carbon and Molecular Diversity

An Introduction to Organic Chemistry

organic chemistry
Organic Chemistry
  • Compounds containing Carbon are said to be Organic
  • The study of carbon compounds is called Organic Chemistry
  • Organic compounds come in a wide range of shapes and sizes
electron configuration
Electron Configuration
  • Carbon has 6 electrons 1s2 2s2 2p2
    • 1st shell = 2 e-
    • 2nd shell = 4 e-
    • valence e- = 4
  • Carbon readily forms covalent bonds in order to share its 4 valence e-
spatial arrangement
Spatial Arrangement
  • The spatial arrangement of atoms determines the function of organic molecules
  • Organic molecules are 3-D
  • Single bonds between carbon atoms allow for rotation and flexibility
  • Carbon chains form the skeleton of organic compounds
  • Organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen = Hydrocarbons
  • The simplest of organic molecules
  • Ex. Ethane, Cyclohexane
  • Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic because their bonds are NON-POLAR
  • Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structure and therefore different properties
  • As the number of carbon skeletons increase, the number of possible isomers also increases.
3 types of isomers
3 Types of Isomers

1. STRUCTURAL: Differ in the arrangement of the covalent bonds

  • ex. Butane & Isobutane


2 geometric different spatial arrangement
2. GEOMETRIC: different spatial arrangement
  • Double bonds are not flexible - they restrict rotation
  • Subtle differences in shape can greatly affect the biological activities of an organic compound
3 sterioisomers mirror images of each other
3. STERIOISOMERS: mirror images of each other
  • Some are more effective than others
  • Usually only one works
  • Important to the pharmaceutical industry
functional groups
Functional Groups
  • Functional groups are certain groups of atoms that are frequently attached to Carbon skeletons
  • They are the regions of organic molecules that are involved in chemical reactions
  • All 6 are Hydrophillic - they increase the solubility of organic compounds in water
  • They behave consistently from molecule to molecule
1 hydroxyl oh group
1. Hydroxyl: -OH Group
  • Polar - Oxygen is electronegative
  • Soluble in water
  • Helps dissolve organic compounds
  • Compounds containing -OH are called alcohols
  • There specific name ends in -ol
R-replaces the carbon backbone
  • -OH the functional hydroxyl group
2 carbonyl group
2. Carbonyl-Group
  • Carbon joined to oxygen in a double bond
  • Very polar and reactive
  • Aldehyde : carbonyl group at the end of a carbon skeleton
  • Ketone: carbonyl group is NOT at the end of a carbon skeleton



3 carboxyl group
3. Carboxyl- Group
  • Forms organic acids (Carboxylic acids)
  • They dissociate readily to release H+
4 the amino group
4. The Amino Group
  • Consists of a Nitrogen atom bonded to 2 hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton
  • Organic compounds with this functional group are called Amines
amino acid glycine
Amino Acid Glycine:
  • What other functional group is present?
  • Therefore, glycine is both an amine and a carboxylic acid
  • Glycine is an Amino Acid, a building block for proteins
5 the sulfhydryl group
5. The Sulfhydryl Group
  • A sulfur atom is bonded to an atom of hydrogen
  • Organic compounds containing a sulfhydryl are called Thiols, they help stabilize proteins
6 the phosphate group
6. The Phosphate Group
  • Phosphate is an anion formed by the dissociation of an inorganic acid called phosphoric acid H3PO4
  • The loss of H ions gives the phosphate a negative charge
properties of organic molecules
Properties of Organic Molecules
  • Distinctive properties depend on:
    • Arrangements of the carbon skeleton
    • molecular components attached
    • location and number of the double bonds
put in your notecards
Put in Your NOTECARDS:
  • 1. The Functional Group Name (6)
  • 2. The General Formula of the Functional Group
  • 3. Examples of molecules that contain those functional groups
  • 4. Properties of molecules having those functional groups
  • 1 notecard for each functional group is fine (6 cards total)