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September 11-12, 2006. The style dossier: strategic schemes for EAP curriculum. Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter. Hunter the style dossier approach. Style dossier approach*. Background Rationale Structure Methodology

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The style dossier strategic schemes for eap curriculum l.jpg

September 11-12, 2006

The style dossier:strategic schemes for EAP curriculum

Lawrie Hunter

Kochi University of Technology

http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter


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Hunterthe style dossier approach

Style dossier approach*

Background

Rationale

Structure

Methodology

*developed at Kochi University of Technology


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Hunterthe style dossier approach

Background

1982, 1987 Technical rewriter, Techwrite, Tokyo

1990- Freelance academic rewriter, Japan

1996- Super translation team member

-Japanese construction ministry

-World Water Forum Kyoto

1998- Referee, CATaC conferences

1999- Editorial team, JALTCALL conferences

2004- Editorial board, Web Based Communities

Instructor

Mathematics

EFL

Assoc. Professor

EFL

Intercultural Comm.

Professor

EFL CALL

EFL Critical thinking

ESP technical writing

EAP for engineers


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Hunterthe style dossier approach

Background

Academic rewrite client attributes:

Makes few grammar errors.

Can identify native-like rhetorical flow.

Can identify perfectly unambiguous text.

Consistently learns from error correction (coded/uncoded).

Wants to learn from error correction.

Writes well by mimicry.

Does not decay with time away from English.

Has a sense of argument.

Writes unambiguous text by logic/puzzle-solving.

Can identify meaning damage in rewrites.

NB: the converse of the above positive attributes

exists in large(r) numbers.


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Hunterthe style dossier approachRATIONALE

Style dossier approach*

Rationale

1. KUT scenario

2. EAP best practice

3. The dossier and other approaches

Structure

Methodology


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Hunterthe style dossier approachRATIONALE

KUT scenario

  • Since 2002: Japanese government scholarships

  • for foreign students in technical doctoral programmes.

  • ! the foreign students are required to publish

  • 2+ refereed papers and a dissertation in English

    demand for new technical academic writing courses


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Hunterthe style dossier approachRATIONALE

KUT scenario

Applicants are screened for academic English knowledge and skill,

BUT

1. There are no extensions in the 3 year programme

2. Research topics are highly granular.

3. Technical RP writing genres are highly granular.

further L2 acquisition

to the point of near-independence

during the study period

is NOT a realistic strategy.

Need for a pragmatic approach.


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Hunterthe style dossier approachRATIONALE

KUT scenario: RP editing

  • In years 2 and 3 of the 3-year programme,

  • the students are writing refereed papers.

    -demand for editing/rewriting service

    -only 2 native speaker faculty members


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Hunterthe style dossier approach

KUT scenario

learner

profile

learner

L2

objectives

degree

programme

demands


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Hunterthe style dossier approach

KUT scenario

learner

profile

learner

L2

objectives

RP how-to

RP support

Skill to independence

degree

programme

demands

3-year limit

2 refereed papers in English

Dissertation in English


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Hunterthe style dossier approach

KUT scenario

learner

profile

learner

L2

objectives

Variable English skill/knowledge

Variable intrinsic motivation

Uniform high extrinsic motivation

High anxiety about research/completion

High anxiety about conference presentation

Communicative competence

Writing support

Conference presentation support

degree

programme

demands


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Hunterthe style dossier approach

KUT scenario

learner

profile

learner

L2

objectives

Variable English skill/knowledge

Variable intrinsic motivation

Uniform high extrinsic motivation

High anxiety about research/completion

High anxiety about conference presentation

Communicative competence

Writing support

Conference presentation support

RP how-to

RP support

L2 skill to independence

degree

programme

demands

3-year limit

2 refereed papers in English

Dissertation in English


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Hunterthe style dossier approachRATIONALE

EAP best practice

Key factors in successful academic performance

Taken from Ginther, A. and Grant, L. (1996) A review of the academic needs of native English-speaking college students in the United States. Research monograph series MS-1. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service

Banerjee, D. and Wall, D. (2006) Assessing and reporting performances on pre-sessional EAP courses: Developing a final assessment checklist and investigating its validity. Journal of English for academic purposes 5(2006) 50-69.


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Hunterthe style dossier approachRATIONALE

EAP best practice: strategies

Language acquisition

to near-independence.


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Hunterthe style dossier approachRATIONALE

EAP best practice: KUT design

I. Acquire knowledge

-registers

-rhetorical moves

framing

relationships

cohesion

-readability (stress position / topic position)

-language structures vs. information structures

II. Learn skills

-data commentary

-summarizing

-using text structures: G-S, P-P-S, ....

-framing

-using lexical units to show relationships

-creating/maintaining cohesion

-avoiding ambiguity

-use/application of register knowledge

-model mimicry

-optimizing readability

-editing through a checklist

Sources

Swales & Feak

Gopen & Swan

Ferris

Halliday & Hasan

Hunter


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Hunterthe style dossier approachRATIONALE

KUT scenario

2003

Swales & Feak

+ grammar

TW2→RW

(2 semesters)

Strategy:

Work towards

writer autonomy

Observation:

Need for rewrites

persists

→ Strategy 2:

incorporate rewriting

in task flow


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Reframing:

learner:instructor becomes client:advisor


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<

big

Hunterthe style dossier approachSTRUCTURE

Hunter’s information maps

Classification

Description

Degree

comparison

Attribute

comparison

Contrast

!

Sequence

Cause-effect


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Hunterthe style dossier approachSTRUCTURE

Candidate screening

Writing from Hunter's information maps


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Hunterthe style dossier approachSTRUCTURE

Candidate screening

Writing from Hunter's information maps


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Hunterthe style dossier approachSTRUCTURE

Candidate screening

Writing from Hunter's information maps


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Hunterthe style dossier approachSTRUCTURE

Candidate screening

Writing from Hunter's information maps


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Hunterthe style dossier approachSTRUCTURE

Candidate screening

Reading for meaning (but writing is main evaluation)


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Hunterthe style dossier approachRATIONALE

KUT scenario

2003

Swales & Feak

+ grammar

TW2→RW

(2 semesters)

Strategy:

Work towards

writer autonomy

Observation:

Need for rewrites

persists

→ Strategy 2:

incorporate rewriting

in task flow

2004

Feedback: early

start preferred:

TW2→RW or

RW→TW2

New:

topic position

stress position

Strategy 3:

Rewriting as a

major task


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Hunterthe style dossier approachRATIONALE

EAP best practice: strategies

Training for

researcher-

native rewriter

collaboration.

Language acquisition

to near-independence.


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Hunterthe style dossier approachRATIONALE

KUT scenario

2003

Swales & Feak

+ grammar

TW2→RW

(2 semesters)

Strategy:

Work towards

writer autonomy

Observation:

Need for rewrites

persists

→ Strategy 2:

incorporate rewriting

in task flow

2004

Feedback: early

start preferred:

TW2→RW or

RW→TW2

New:

topic position

stress position

Strategy 2:

Rewriting as a

major task

2005

Observations:

1. Autonomy often

unrealistic;

2. Rewriting unsuitable

for some Ss.

3. RW→TW2

not a good idea.

4. Native-written RPs

often badly flawed.

Strategy 4: Incorporate

models, mimicry

in task flow


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Hunterthe style dossier approachRATIONALE

EAP best practice: strategies

Training for

researcher-

native rewriter

collaboration.

Language acquisition

to near-independence.

Emphasis on

use of language models:

the style dossier


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Hunterthe style dossier approachSTRUCTURE

Style dossier approach

Rationale

Structure

1. Curriculum content

2. Constraints

Methodology


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Hunterthe style dossier approachSTRUCTURE

Curriculum content

I. Receptive/productive KNOWLEDGE/SKILLS


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Hunterthe style dossier approachSTRUCTURE

Curriculum content

I. DOSSIER SKILLS (receptive/productive)

II. DOSSIER PROCESS


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Reframing:

learner:instructor becomes client:advisor


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Reframing:

client:advisor becomes user:consultant

Claim: when we add dossier

work, no additional knowledge

or skills are required


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Style dossier approach

Rationale

Structure

Methodology

1. Dossier collection tasks

2. Dossier-related writing tasks

3. Dossier usage/manipulation tasks

4. Scenario constraints


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Methodology frame

Class orientation handout

SSP students have three years to publish two academic research papers and write a PhD dissertation. (Please note that a paper and a dissertation require different kinds of writing.)

There are several strategies for EAP students to produce acceptable research papers:

1. Become a very good writer of academic English and write your own very good papers without help.

2. Become a pretty good writer of academic English, and get a native speaker to check your grammar.

3. Become a better, but still weak writer of academic English, and get a native speaker to do a complete rewrite for you.

4. Do not learn to write academic English well, and find a native speaker to 'ghost-write' your paper for you.

5. Steal parts of other researchers' papers and combine them to make your own paper.

Which strategies will work for you?


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Methodology frame

Self-assess strategy tool


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Methodology frame

1. In this kind of work, first the 'user' must know

-the tools and objects involved

-how to talk about them.

  • .


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Methodology frame

1. In this kind of work, first the 'user' must know

-the tools and objects involved

-how to talk about them.

  • 2. Second, time and again

  • the user must articulate anew his/her course

  • through the strategy network

  • from entry to final user success.


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Methodology frame

1. In this kind of work, first the 'user' must know

-the tools and objects involved

-how to talk about them.

  • 2. Second, time and again

  • the user must articulate anew his/her course

  • through the strategy network

  • from entry to final user success.

  • 3. This ongoing rearticulation consists of

  • -self observation of success and time constraints

  • -calculation of learning objective achievement probability*.

  • *Not everyone will learn to write 'from scratch' well

  • and even those who could learn to do so

  • may not have sufficient short-term (or even long-term) time.


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Methodology frame

1. In this kind of work, first the 'user' must know

-the tools and objects involved

-how to talk about them.

  • 2. Second, time and again

  • the user must articulate anew his/her course

  • through the strategy network

  • from entry to final user success.

  • 3. This ongoing rearticulation consists of

  • -self observation of success and time constraints

  • -calculation of learning objective achievement probability*.

  • 4. Native rewriter resource availability/affordability are also key factors in deciding strategy.


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Dossier collection tasks

A. Research writing register models

B. Informal discussion register models

C. Glossary


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Dossier collection tasks

  • Research writing register models

    • -3 or more research papers on topics very close to

    • the learner’s research topic.

  • How to tell if a research paper is written in good English:

  • 1: judge for oneself if the English is good;

  • 2: consult with research supervisor about English quality

  • 3: consult with a native speaker of English

  • who has some experience with technical writing.

  • B. Informal discussion register models

  • C. Glossary


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Dossier collection tasks

A. Research writing register models

B. Informal discussion register models

A collection of articles from science magazines or web sites

-topics loosely related to one’s research.

These materials provide models for presentation language.

C. Glossary


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Dossier collection tasks

A. Research writing register models

B. Informal discussion register models

C. Glossary

A collection of vocabulary, model phrases and model sentences

which are gradually collected

while reading English research reports and technical articles.

Glossary construction is appealing only to some learning styles.


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Dossier-related writing tasks

Paraphrasing

Quotation


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Dossier usage / manipulation tasks

Extracting register appropriate language models (RAMs)

Adapting RAMs to own need:

-application of model sentence structures to given content

-application of model linking devices to given content


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Summary

Scenario constraints

Learner time

Learner variability

Research topic granularity

RP genre granularity

Quality of available models

Native rewriter availability/affordability


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Summary

Scenario constraints

Learner time

Learner variability

Research topic granularity

RP genre granularity

Quality of available models

Native rewriter availability/affordability

Compromises

Pragmatic strategies

Learner revisioned as client, then as user

Instructor revisioned as advisor, then as consultant


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Summary

Scenario constraints

Learner time

Learner variability

Research topic granularity

RP genre granularity

Quality of available models

Native rewriter availability/affordability

Compromises

Pragmatic strategies

Learner revisioned as client, then as user

Instructor revisioned as advisor, then as consultant

Task array

Grammar work

Information structure mapping

Register work

RP lexis work

Write-rewrite

Dossier work


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Practical point: RP editing

  • In years 2 and 3 of the 3-year doctoral programme,

  • the students are writing refereed papers

  • Hunter’s policy on edit/rewrite/consult services:

  • 1. Maximum 2 pages at a time, intro first and last

  • 2. One week notice

  • 3. Only ‘graduates’ of English writing programme

  • 4. Exceptions to 1, 2 or 3 will be referred to ‘pro’ editors.

  • Hunter’s policy on presentation consult services:

  • 1. Learner must do 3 cycles of video, critique, repair.

  • 2. Consultant will watch only video 3.

  • 3. Only ‘graduates’ of English writing programme


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Reframing:

client:advisor becomes user:consultant

Claim: when we add dossier

work, no additional knowledge

or skills are required


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Final question:

class or individual?

Class: shared experience, teaching 'flow'

vs.

Individual: maturity, motivation, monitoring


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Hunterthe style dossier approachMETHODOLOGY

Final question:

class or individual?

Class: shared experience, teaching 'flow'

vs.

Individual: maturity, motivation, monitoring

Add granular content and multi-style tasks:

Write-edit-rewrite (uncoded to coded)

Information structure mapping

Readability work

Swales & Feak exercises

Dossier collection and manipulation

= a framework for a CALL application (e.g. Moodle)?


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Hunterthe style dossier approachSTRUCTURE

Sources

Banerjee, D. and Wall, D. (2006) Assessing and reporting performances on pre-sessional EAP courses: Developing a final assessment checklist and investigating its validity. Journal of English for academic purposes 5(2006) 50-69.

Ferris, D. (2002) Treatment of error in second language student writing.University of Michigan Press.

Ginther, A. and Grant, L. (1996) A review of the academic needs of native English-speaking college students in the United States. Research monograph series MS-1. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Gopen, G.D. & Swan, J.A. (1990) The Science of Scientific Writing. American Scientist 78 550-558.

http://www.americanscientist.org/template/AssetDetail/assetid/23947

Harwood, N. (2006) What do we want EAP teaching materials for? Journal of English for Academic Purposes 4 (2005) 149-161.

Hunter, L. Online resource for English for Academic Purposes:

http://del.icio.us/rolenzo/eap

Koutsantoni, D. (2006) Rhetorical strategies in engineering research articles and research theses: Advanced academic literacy and relations of power. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 5 (2006) 19-36.

Liu, M. & Braine, G. (2005) Cohesive features in argumentative writing produced by Chinese undergraduates. English for specific purposes 24 (2005)

Rowley-Jolivet, E. & Carter-Thomas, S. (2005) Genre awareness and rhetorical appropriacy: Manipulation of information structure by NS and NNS scientists in the international conference setting. System 33 (2005) 41-64.

Swales, J.M.. and Feak, C.B. (2004) Academic writing for graduate students: essential tasks and skills (2nd ed.).University of Michigan Press.

Swales, J.M.. and Feak, C.B. (2001) English in Today's Research World: A Writing Guide.University of Michigan Press.


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Thank you so much

for your kind attention.

Lawrie HunterKochi University of Technology

http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/