Chapter 2 – The Fall of Rome Section Notes Video The Roman Empire Fall of the Western Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire Ancient Rome and the World Today Maps History Close-up The Roman Empire at its Height, 117 Early Christianity in the Roman Empire The Eastern and Western Empires Invasions of the Roman Empire, 340-500 The Byzantine Empire, 1025 The Glory of Constantinople Quick Facts Roman Accomplishments Why Rome Fell The Western Roman and ByzantineEmpires Chapter 2 Visual Summary Images Roman Ruins Time Line: Key Events in Roman History Justinian and Theodora
The Roman Empire 7.1.1 • The Big Idea • The Romans made great advances in many fields that helped keep their empire strong. • Main Ideas • Leadership and laws helped the Romans in building the empire. • Roman advancements in engineering, architecture, art, and philosophy helped shape later civilizations. • Christianity spread quickly throughout the Roman world.
Rome grew from a tiny village to a huge city. Home to more than a million people The territories Rome controlled formed one of the largest states the world had ever seen. Territories surrounded the Mediterranean Sea. The Roman Empire was ruled by emperors. Roman citizens understood their laws and had protected rights. Main Idea 1: Leadership and laws helped the Romans in building the empire.
Roman Emperor’s Powers Declare war, raise taxes, and punish lawbreakers Nominate public officials and influence meetings of the Senate Lead religious festivals
Citizens were the people who could participate in government. Citizens had the right to vote and hold public office. Duties of citizenship included Paying taxes Serving in the army when needed Rome’s emperors gave citizenship to groups that the Romans had conquered. This act helped keep people loyal to Rome. Roman Citizenship
Engineering Roads lasted for centuries, and bridges spanned raging rivers. Aqueducts, human-made channels that carried water from distant mountain ranges into Rome or other cities Architecture and Art Romans borrowed from Greek ideas, such as using columns and open space, but made their buildings larger and grander. Roman art borrowed ideas from the Greeks, such as making their art look realistic. Philosophy Wanted to show the world as it really was Wanted their ideas to improve people’s lives Main Idea 2: Roman advancements in engineering, architecture, art, and philosophy helped shape later civilizations.
Main Idea 3: Christianity spread quickly throughout the Roman world. Roman officials tried to stop the growth of Christianity, but they were unsuccessful. Later emperors increased their support for Christianity, and it became the official religion of the empire. By the 300s most of Rome’s population was Christian. Church leaders became major figures in Roman society.
The Big Idea Problems from both inside and outside caused the Roman Empire to split and the western half to collapse. Main Ideas Many problems threatened the Roman Empire, leading one emperor to divide it in half. Barbarians invaded Rome in the 300s and 400s. Many factors contributed to Rome’s fall. Fall of the Western Roman Empire 7.1.2
At its height the Roman Empire included all the land around the Mediterranean Sea. The empire became too large to defend or govern efficiently. Emperor Diocletian divided the empire to make it more manageable. Main Idea 1: Many problems threatened the Roman Empire, leading one emperor to divide it in half.
Emperors gave up territory because they feared the empire had become too large. Yet new threats to the empire were appearing. Because so many people were needed for the army, there was no one left to farm the land. Disease and high taxes threatened Rome’s survival. Problems in the Empire
Emperor Diocletian divided the empire because it was too big for one person to rule. Emperor Constantine reunited the two halves shortly after he took power. He moved the capital east, into what is now Turkey. The new capital was called Constantinople. Power no longer resided in Rome. Division of the Empire
Not long after Rome’s capital moved, German barbarians raided the Roman Empire. In the late 300s, a new group, called the Huns, invaded Europe. They were from Central Asia. The Goths fled from the Huns into Rome. They moved into western Roman territory. Additional attacks by more invaders made the empire weak. Main Idea 2:Barbarians invaded Rome in the 300s and 400s.
The Huns pushed a group called the Goths into Rome because they had nowhere else to go. The Goths destroyed Rome after Rome quit paying them not to attack. The Goths sacked, or destroyed, Rome in 410. The Sacking of Rome
The Goths’ victory encouraged other groups to invade the western half of the empire. The Vandals invaded Spain, crossed into northern Africa, and destroyed Roman settlements. Led by Attila, the Huns raided most of the Roman territory in the east, except for Rome. Attila avoided Rome because he had been told diseases ran wild there. Roman emperors became weak, and military leaders took power. They did not protect the empire, however. A Barbarian general overthrew the last weak emperor in Rome and named himself king in 476. This event is considered the end of the western Roman Empire. The Empire in Chaos
The large size of the empire made it hard to govern. Barbarian invasions weakened the empire. Corruption, or the decay of people’s values, in politics led to inefficiency in government. Bribes and threats were used to achieve goals. Wealthy citizens began to leave Rome, making life more difficult for those who remained. Inflation and a weakening economy were factors. The military used its power to make and remove emperors. Main Idea 3: Many factors contributed to Rome’s fall.
The Big Idea The Roman Empire split into two parts, and the Eastern Roman Empire prospered for hundreds of years after the western empire fell. Main Ideas Eastern emperors ruled from Constantinople and tried but failed to reunite the whole Roman Empire. The people of the eastern empire created a new society that was very different from society in the west. Byzantine Christianity was different from religion in the west. The Byzantine Empire 7.1.3
Justinian wanted to reunite the old Roman Empire. He conquered Italy and much land around the Mediterranean. He examined Rome’s laws and organized them into a legal system called the Justinianic Code. Removed out-of-date and unchristian laws Simplified Roman law to give fair treatment to all He made two enemies who would have run him out of Constantinople had his wife, Theodora, not convinced him to stay. Theodora was smart and powerful, and advised Justinian on how to end the riots. Main Idea 1: Eastern emperors ruled from Constantinople and tried but failed to reunite the whole Roman Empire.
The Empire after Justinian • After his death, the eastern Roman Empire began to decline. • Later emperors lost all the land Justinian had gained. • In 1453, a group called the Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople and ended the eastern Roman Empire. • The 1,000-year history of the eastern Roman Empire came to an end.
Main Idea 2: The people of the eastern empire created a new society that was very different from society in the west • How the eastern empire differed from the western empire • The society was called the Byzantine Empire. • People studied Greek, not Latin. • They traded with and were influenced by other cultures. • Emperors had more power and were thought to be chosen by God. They had both political and religious power.
Christianity was very important to both the East and the West. Churches and mosaics, or pictures made with pieces of colored stone or glass, reflected their devotion to God. People in the East and West began to interpret elements of Christianity differently. Eastern priests could get married, but Western priests could not. Religious services were performed in Greek in the East and in Latin in the West. The East broke away from the West and formed the Eastern Orthodox Church. Main Idea 3:Byzantine Christianity was different from religion in the west.