Public Organization and the Problem of Change. This analysis argues that fundamental change in most organizations most of the time is not possible. This means that popular words like restructuring and reform are empty, signifying much ado about nothing.
This means that popular words like restructuring and reform are empty, signifying much ado about nothing.
The analysis applies to all public organization; schools, colleges and welfare agencies. But in all likelihood, it is equally applicable to private sector organizations as well.
Standardization built into the work
Standardization built into the worker
Type 1 non-adaptability is related to
standardization as a coordination mechanism.
Fundamental change requires that teachers do something different. Incidental change requires that schools do something additional.
As professional bureaucracies, schools cannot change fundamentally, only incidentally.
Schools are well suited for incidental change because they are performance organizations, not problem solving organizations.