slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Teaching Sequential Tasks PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Teaching Sequential Tasks

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 80

Teaching Sequential Tasks - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 1264 Views
  • Uploaded on

Teaching Sequential Tasks. Companion PowerPoint to the Teaching Sequential Skills DVD and Coach’s Manual Utah Personnel Development Center Cathy Longstroth – Patti Haning – Cindy Myers February 5, 2010 revision. Two Types of Task Analysis. Discrete Trial Chained Activities.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Teaching Sequential Tasks' - Samuel


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Teaching Sequential Tasks

Companion PowerPoint to the Teaching

Sequential Skills DVD and Coach’s Manual

Utah Personnel Development Center

Cathy Longstroth – Patti Haning – Cindy Myers

February 5, 2010 revision

two types of task analysis
Two Types of Task Analysis
  • Discrete Trial
  • Chained Activities
discrete trial examples
Discrete Trial Examples
  • Each trial is separate and distinct from other trials
    • Learning numbers 0-20
    • Coin identification
    • Learning functional words and phrases
sequential tasks behavioral chains
Sequential Tasks (Behavioral Chains)
  • Steps are performed in sequence such that each step acts as the cue for the next one (skills are taught on 2 dimensions)
    • Dressing skills
    • Leisure skills
    • Self-Care skills
    • Classroom and family routines
slide5

Adult

Younger students may spend more time in discrete trial training and link the skills learned to functional activities. Older students may spend more time in routines and activities and work on discrete trial tasks that originate from those activities.

steps to teaching sequential skills
Steps to Teaching Sequential Skills
  • Step 1. Perform a task analysis
  • Step 2. Take baseline data
  • Step 3. Determine whether you will use a forward chain, backward chain or total task presentation.
steps to teaching sequential skills8
Steps to Teaching Sequential Skills
  • Step 4. Determine a plan for fading prompts
  • Step 5. Set up the data collection system and schedule
  • Step 6. Use evidence based instructional strategies to teach the skills
  • Step 7. Use the data for problem solving
when do we need a task analysis
When do we need a Task Analysis?
  • Most students with autism or significant disabilities can learn most classroom routines by the SHOW - TELL - HELP method
  • If the student cannot do this- Do a Task Analysis
slide10

Step 1

The Task

Analysis

step 1 the task analysis
Step 1. The Task Analysis
  • 1. Perform the activity or have another person perform the activity.
  • 2. Record the steps of the activity.
  • 3.Customize the steps for the student.
slide13

Step 2

Baseline Data

step 2 baseline data
Step 2. Baseline Data

Determine the present levels of performance of all steps by following the task analysis and providing least to most assistance.

At this point you will not be providing instruction, just seeing what the student can and cannot do and how much assistance is necessary for correct performance.

slide16

Step 3

Determine the Chaining Type

slide17

Step 3: Determine if the skill will be taught in a forward, backward, or total task presentation.The difference depends on where you focus the “point of instruction”

total task chain
Total Task Chain
  • All steps in the chain are taught simultaneously, as compared to one step at a time to criterion in forward and backward chaining.
  • Most often used when the student has mastered most of the steps in the chain. This type is most often used in vocation/community instruction.
  • Examples: Clearing table, making sandwich, brushing teeth, shopping for groceries, vacuuming carpets, sweeping floors, washing and drying clothes, riding the bus
forward chain
Forward Chain
  • The Point of Instruction and reward begins with the FIRST unmastered step and progresses to the LAST unmastered step
  • Examples: Writing first name, saying full name, counting, learning a poem, navigating to a site on the computer
forward chain22
Forward Chain
  • Examples: Writing first name, saying full name, counting, navigating to a site on the computer
backwards chain
Backwards Chain
  • Point of instruction and reward begins with the LAST unmastered step in the chain and progresses to the FIRST unmastered step.
    • After the last step is mastered, instruction begins at the second to last step
    • The student still does the skill from the first to last step, but the emphasis of instruction is on the last step, then last two steps, then last three steps, etc.
backward chain
Backward Chain
  • Examples: Zipping zipper, buttoning, putting on shirt, putting on socks, eating with a spoon, drinking from cup or glass, drinking with a straw, tying shoelaces, putting on a jacket, operating a CD player, moving object from one container to another, washing and drying hands, saying telephone number, putting together a puzzle, counting backwards
backwards chain26
Backwards Chain
  • Backwards chains are generally preferred because the end of the routine is always the same and more clearly signals the opportunity for the reward.
    • e.g. After hands are dry, the task is done (and rewarded)
  • However, different learners may be more or less successful with difference methods
slide28

Directionof Instruction

Instructional Step

Untaught Steps

Mastered Step

slide29

Directionof Instruction

Instructional Step

Untaught Steps

Mastered Step

slide30

Directionof Instruction

Instructional Step

Untaught Steps

Mastered Step

slide31

Directionof Instruction

Instructional Step

Untaught Steps

Mastered Step

total task chain32
Total Task Chain
  • All steps in the chain are taught simultaneously, as compared to one step at a time to criterion in forward and backward chaining.
  • Most often used when the student has mastered most of the steps in the chain. This type is most often used in vocational/community instruction.
total task chain34
Total Task Chain
  • Examples: Clearing table, making sandwich, brushing teeth, shopping for groceries, vacuuming carpets, sweeping floors, washing and drying clothes, riding the bus
check for understanding
Check for Understanding
  • Practice with a peer as a student
    • Teach saying the alphabet as a forward chain - begin to withdraw verbal prompts using a time delay* on the A, (help student say B through Z), then AB (help student say the whole alphabet C through Z), then ABC (help the student say D through Z)

*See information on “Time Delay” in this PowerPoint

check for understanding36
Check for Understanding
  • Practice with a peer as a student
    • Teach saying the alphabet as backward chain - begin to withdraw verbal prompts using a time delay* on the Z, (help student say A through Y), then YZ (help student say the whole alphabet A through X), then XYZ (help the student say A through W)

*See information on “Time Delay” in this PowerPoint

check for understanding37
Check for Understanding
  • Practice with a peer as a student
    • Teach saying the alphabet using a total task approach. Only give verbal prompts on letters the student is having difficulty stating correctly. For instance, the student may say “elemeno” instead of L,M, N, O. Have the student say the alphabet A to Z, but verbally prompt the correct letters before the error occurs. Gradually withdraw the verbal prompts.
slide38

Step 4

Prompts and Prompt Fading

step 4 determine the most effective prompts and outline a strategy for fading prompts out
Step 4: Determine the most effective prompts and outline a strategy for fading prompts out.
  • PLAN the fading out of added help.
prompts enable errorless learning
Prompts Enable Errorless Learning
  • Full physical prompts
  • Partial physical prompts
  • Gesture
  • Verbal prompts
  • Indirect prompts
  • Visual prompts
slide41
A prompt is extra information that you provide to a student that helps them learn some skill.
  • It is also meant to be temporary.
  • The goal of prompting should be to help the student learn some skill so that they can then perform that skill independently.

Amy Peters

slide42
At some point, all students will need some form of prompting
  • Careful prompting is most important with students with moderate, severe or profound disabilities
  • This is because these students are more at risk for becoming dependent on the assistance provided

Amy Peters

slide43
There are lots of different types of prompting. Different methods are appropriate for different situations and students.

Amy Peters

slide44
Verbal prompting is when
  • Spoken cues are given to a student that instruct a student to perform a certain activity
    • Verbal prompts are usually paired with other types of prompting
    • and it can be difficult to fade
  • The student must be able to understand and follow verbal directions

Amy Peters

slide45

Verbal Prompts can be helpful for:

      • Teaching the labeling of actions (e.g., “check schedule”)
      • Creating a verbal “chain” so that a child can self-talk the steps of the chain (e.g., Annie can learn the letters of her name are “A…n….n…i…e”)
slide46

The student copies the action(s) of another person performing the desired behavior

  • The student must be able to imitate and
  • Modeling is usually paired with other types of prompting
  • Modeling is when

Amy Peters

slide47

physical prompting from another person

  • It is most effective when the prompter cues the learner from behind
    • Types of manual guidance include
    • Hand over hand
    • Forearm and
    • Shoulder
  • It can be used in the absence of other types of prompting and it is the easiest to fade.
  • Manual guidance is

Amy Peters

slide48

Used in combination with other types of prompting

  • It is using some action to cue the learner like
    • Pointing
    • Nodding
    • Motioning
    • Approving or disapproving looks
  • This form of prompting may be difficult to fade
  • Gestural prompting is usually

Amy Peters

textual prompts are
Textual prompts are
  • Written forms of information or instructions
  • They include things like
    • Checklists
    • Scripts
    • And pictures

Amy Peters

spatial prompting is
Spatial prompting is
  • Arranging the materials to highlight the correct response
  • An example in classroom might be saying to a student to “get out your blue folder” and the blue folder is on top of the other materials inside of the students desk

Amy Peters

slide51
When choosing the right prompt there are several things to consider.
  • The teacher must think about the environment and the type of learner that the student is.
  • It is important to not only think the process through, but to also write the process down on paper.

Amy Peters

slide52
Writing it down will facilitate several important things.
  • First it will help all staff implement prompting procedures consistently and with fidelity.
  • It will also help the teacher determine if the prompting procedure being used is working.
  • Most importantly, it will help the teacher determine what the steps will be to fading the prompt that is being used.

Amy Peters

slide53
Prompting is onlyeffective if it can be faded and eliminated over time.
  • If it is necessary to continue to prompt a student to get them to complete some task, then it is additional support, not a prompt.
  • Additional support is okay, and some students will need additional support to complete some tasks.
  • But, if it is a prompt there must be a plan in place to get fade it.

Amy Peters

slide54
Prompting should be designed to help students learn to respond to cues that occur in their natural environment.
  • We answer the phone when it rings.

Amy Peters

slide55

Cues students need to respond to in the school environment include lining up from recess when the bell rings. Instead of hearing the bell and only lining up when told to do so by a staff member.

  • Another example would be having a timer set in a classroom to cue the student when some activity is ending. However, sometimes what happens is that the timer only cues the teacher to tell the student to turn off the timer and transition to a different activity

Amy Peters

slide56
Basically, the goal of all prompting is to add just enough information that the student can learn to do some skill independently.
  • It is also to prompt a student in a manner that the prompt can then be faded.
  • This is beneficial to everyone because the student is not as dependent on the teacher or staff and gains independence for new skills.

Amy Peters

fading prompts by using time delay
Fading Prompts byUsing Time Delay

Time Delay is a prompt fading strategy that involves inserting a delay between giving an cue and delivering a prompt. To start, there is a 0 second delay. The teacher helps the student immediately. After the student starts to understand and perform the response, the teacher adds a fixed (constant) delay –perhaps 4 or 5 seconds- before helping the student. The teacher may decide to use time delay that gets progressively longer (progressive time delay). Staff may wait 3, 4, and then 5 seconds before providing assistance.

slide60

Step 5

Data Collection and Scheduling

step 5 set up the data collection system and schedule
Step 5. Set up the Data Collection System and Schedule
  • Information you need
    • The sequence of the steps
    • Forward, backward or total task chain
    • If forward or backward, where is the point of instruction
    • Whether the student performed or did not perform the step
    • Level of prompts given
    • Comments: adjustments, shaping, modifications, etc
slide62

Step 6

Teach the Skill

reinforcement
Reinforcement
  • Conduct a reinforcement survey
  • Fade out the reinforcement to verbal praise and naturally occurring reinforcement
error correction
Error Correction
  • STOP the student as soon as possible
  • BACKSTEP to last correctly performed step and provide enough help for success
  • Provide sufficient HELP for correct performance of the step that was performed incorrectly ( increase support by one level ) Help from behind if possible
      • Avoid verbal prompts - Prompt from behind if possible
error correction66
Error Correction
  • Sometimes when we backstep, we need to replace the cues that are normally there for the step we are repeating. For example, if a student is working on the leaving school routine and drops his backpack, BACKSTEP and replace the backpack.
  • If possible and practical, repeat the entire chain as soon as possible.
shaping
Shaping
  • Making the task easier
    • Button with large buttons, medium sized, then small buttons
    • Use a larger sock when starting putting sock on program or a larger T-shirt when getting dressed.
  • Rewarding attempts that get closer, step by step, to the end response.
shaping68
Shaping

Kicking larger, then smaller balls

putting it together the lesson plan cover sheet
Putting It TogetherThe Lesson Plan/Cover Sheet
  • Objective: Have a clear and measureable behavioral objective. Determine what you want the child to be able to do at the end of instruction. If you are teaching colors, how will the student use this skill in daily activities. Detail how the objective is functional and aligns with grade level core standards.
putting it together the lesson plan cover sheet70
Putting It TogetherThe Lesson Plan/Cover Sheet
  • The purpose of the Lesson Plan /Cover Sheet is to provide an opportunity for the teacher to think the process through thoroughly before beginning instruction
  • Another purpose of this document is to provide enough information that all staff members will be “on the same page” in all aspects of the instruction.
putting it together the lesson plan cover sheet71
Putting It TogetherThe Lesson Plan/Cover Sheet
  • Reinforcement: Use information from reinforcer survey to establish adequate reinforcement to ensure success on the task. Consider “establishing operations” that affect the power of the reinforcer. For example, if a favorite food is used, the lack of that food before the delivery of the reinforcer will increase it’s reinforcing value.
  • Schedule of Reinforcement: How much reinforcement will be given and when.
putting it together the lesson plan cover sheet72
Putting It TogetherThe Lesson Plan/Cover Sheet
  • Program Steps : These are listed on the task analysis/data sheet.
  • Error Correction: Explain any exceptions to Stop. Backstep. Prompt. Also consider increased reinforcement, pre-correction/pre-rehearsal or additional practice outside the chain at another time, “branching” or further refining the task analysis, and
  • Chaining type: Forward, backward, or Total Task
  • Criteria for Moving to Next Step: How many times should the student perform the independently before instruction moves to the next step.
putting it together the lesson plan cover sheet73
Putting It TogetherThe Lesson Plan/Cover Sheet
  • Materials Needed: List any materials that need to be available before instruction begins.
  • Prompt Fading Procedure: Determine if you will use a least to most prompt fading procedure or time delay. If using time delay be sure to state the prompt that will used when the time delay is up (controlling prompt). List prompts that may be used in teaching this skill on the task analysis/data sheet. Give a higher value to prompts where stronger guidance is given by the teacher and a lesser value to those in which the assistance is milder. Independent performance receives a “0” score.
putting it together the lesson plan cover sheet74
Putting It TogetherThe Lesson Plan/Cover Sheet
  • Instructional / Cue /Discriminative Stimulus: Determine the cue that signals the beginning of the chain of behaviors. It could be a teacher cue, “time to line up,” or the ringing of the recess bell.
  • Generalization, Stimulus Factors: Have the student perform the skill in other settings and with other people. Consider using multiple examples of stimuli. For example, when teaching hand washing, have the student practice with different faucets and different ways of drying hands.
putting it together the lesson plan cover sheet75
Putting It TogetherThe Lesson Plan/Cover Sheet
  • Generalization, Response Factors: Think of the variety of responses that are reasonable for this skill. For example, a student may write with a pen, pencil, chalk, and marker.
  • Student Response: Student response for each step as listed on the Task Analysis/Data Collection sheet.
  • Special Considerations: List anything that might affect the performance of the program or that all the staff may need to know.
slide76

Step 7

Problem Solving

step 7 use data for problem solving
Step 7: Use data for Problem Solving
  • Branching – adding more steps to the task analysis
  • Increased Reinforcement
  • Increased Prompting
  • Practice Outside the Chain
extra practice
Extra Practice
  • Increases success
  • Reduces the need for assistance
  • Reduces anxiety
  • Examples
    • When working on buttoning, put buttons through a slit in a tennis ball
    • When working on going through cafeteria line, practice typing lunch number on keypad