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Model Of Multimedia Learning. ( By Stephen M. Alessi and Stanley R. Trollip ). Prepared by Dr. Mohd Zahir QIM501. What is Multimedia?. T G A V A. Text. Graphic. Audio. Visual. Animation. Introduction. PRESENTATION OF INFORMATION. GUIDING THE LEARNER. PRACTICE. ASSESSMENT.

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slide1

Model Of Multimedia Learning

(By Stephen M. Alessi and Stanley R. Trollip)

Prepared by

Dr. Mohd Zahir

QIM501

what is multimedia
What is Multimedia?
  • T
  • G
  • A
  • V
  • A

Text

Graphic

Audio

Visual

Animation

slide3

Introduction

PRESENTATION OF INFORMATION

GUIDING THE LEARNER

PRACTICE

ASSESSMENT

  • Alessi & Trollip review the history of computers with a special emphasis on the use of computers for instruction.
  • Technological improvements have generally led to advances in educational computing, but these advances have commonly been preceded by setbacks as the new technologies are implemented.
  • For example, the move from mainframe computers to personal computers reduced the cost of computers, thereby making them more widely available, but also resulted initially in a loss of interconnectivity.
  • The development of the Internet and World Wide Web restored that interconnectivity, but the development of robust software for creating instructional applications in this new environment has lagged.

4 steps are necessary for successful instruction to occur.

Information can be presented via text, example, picture,demonstration, or any of a host of methods.

is successful when the learner develops an understanding of the material presented

is intended to help the learner develop speed and fluency, with the new information, and to retain it.

measure the level and quality of learning and determine the value of the instruction.

slide4

Model Outlines (2001)

  • The model is flexible allowing a person to mold it to his own individual needs and style of work for creating a robust and effectiveness multimedia product. There are 7 features that embody this approach:
  • 1.It is standard-based. This is both client and developer should agree on the standard for all aspect of the final product.
  • 2. It is an empirical approach. Development is based on a cycle of drafting, evaluating and revising until the product works.
  • 3. Project must be well managed from beginning to end. Multimedia projects have a tendency to get off track .
  • 4. Driven by principles of cognitive psychology, which are: perception and attention, encoding, memory, comprehension, active learning, motivation, locus of control, mental models, metacognition, transfer of learning, and individual differences.
  • 5. With the profusion of ‘integrated’ tools, such as Authorware and ToolBook, it is tempting to start developing tools soon. Designers are encouraged to discuss and plan with other people and then drafting ideas before implementing the plans.
  • 6. Emphasis on creativity,Creativity is necessary to reveal the capabilities of electronic technology and to encourage people to use the instruction.
  • 7. Encouragement of team-oriented approach with expertise in instructional design, programming, graphic arts, and the subject matter more skills and knowledge are involved, thus raising the expected standard of acceptable quality.
slide5

Design and Development Model (2001)

Based on these criteria, Alessi and Trollip created a model for developing interactive multimedia materials that has three attributes: standards, ongoing evaluation and project management; and three phases: planning, design and development. The model is illustrated as below:

slide6

Attributes

Standards

A designer or design team will approach each project with an idea in mind of the minimum standards which should be achieved in completing the project. Additionally, each project will also have other client-driven standards.

Ongoing evaluation

In order to ensure that all standards for project development are met, a constant process of evaluation must occur. This evaluation will often inspire revision, making the design process an interactive one.

Project management

Management both drives and responds to the evaluation process. As evaluation assesses what has been done, management compares what has been done to what must be done, and measures all of it against the standards set at the project's inception. Early planning, continuous monitoring, and effective communication are three hallmarks of successful project management.

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Planning Phase

  • The planning process may begin with a determination of the scope of the given content that the instruction is expected to cover. What is the learner intended to know or be able to do at the end of the learning experience?
  • What the product is supposed to deliver?
  • Learning characteristics should be assessed based on age, experience, physical and intellectual ability, reading level, educational background, socioeconomic status, and motivation. Prior knowledge of the subject matter area to be taught should also be determined. It may be possible that the client intends to use the instructional product as a form of reference as well as a teaching tool. If this is the case, characteristics of those who will use the tool for reference should also be assessed.
slide8

Planning Phase

  • Establishing constraints involves comparing the context in which the product will function to the qualities it is expected to have. Constraints include hardware, software, cost, and time.
  • Determining the cost of the project is another phase of the planning process. An itemized list of deliverables and an analysis of the time and materials required to produce each is essential for a for-hire project.
  • The style manual will establish the look and feel of the product, establish style conventions, and set parameters for functionality and create components that will all fit together into a seamless whole.
  • Content resources contain data about the subject matter to be taught and/or examples of ways to teach it. Instructional design resources guide the design process. Delivery system resources are manuals and references related to the computers, software, etc. which will be used to create the product. It is often valuable to use a computer database to document, organize, and track these resources.
  • Once the planning documents and resources are in place, it is time to develop an approach to the project. The goal of brainstorming is to produce a large quantity of ideas. Quality is not evaluated in the initial brainstorming phase, since an idea that is not directly applicable can trigger a more useful idea. These ideas will be drawn on in the design phase of the process.
  • Diagrams and prototypes may be used to communicate design ideas.
  • Once all these steps have been accomplished, it is time to obtain client approval, or sign-off, for everything that has occurred and is being planned.
slide9

Design Phase

  • These documents will enable the development team to turn the proposed instructional product into a reality. During the design phase, then ideas are turned into a first draft of the program, and, finally, design documents are created.
  • The two most commonly used methods of content analysis are task analysis and concept analysis. Task analysis begins with the final, or terminal, objective and breaks it down into its component parts, each of which is then similarly broken down. This process continues until the "entry-level skills," those skills and abilities the target learners should possess before receiving the instruction, are reached. Concept analysis takes a learning domain and breaks it down into the relevant concepts which must be understood before the domain can be mastered.
  • The types of learning represented by each component of the content analysis should be identified and appropriate methodologies to facilitate that learning established. A flowchart or diagram may be used to illustrate the sequence of the intended instruction.
slide10

Design Phase

  • A prototype is a rough model of the final product. Prototypes are useful to help clients and developers envision the planned program.
  • Flowcharts reveal the structure and sequence of the instruction. They show how the various enabling objectives are taught and how the learner moves through them to reach the terminal objective.Storyboards should include the complete primary text and secondary text as they will appear onscreen, graphics, and audio and video scripts.
  • Evaluation of each of these design documents by experts is crucial to ensure that the final product will be effective and appropriate.
  • When all the planning documents have been completed, evaluated by experts, and revised, client sign-off should be obtained.
slide11

Development Phase

  • Programming involves translating the inert text into a dynamic computer program. Programmers must take the technology that will be used by the target audience into account when writing the product's code. It may be possible to draw on existing code to create some parts of the program.
  • It is important that the quality and richness of graphics, whether still or animated, be consistent throughout the program.
  • If video is to be used, it should be included only when clearly more effective than other options, and should always be professionally produced. Audio is less expensive to produce and easier to deliver via Web than video. If audio is included, users should be given the option not to listen to it. (Both video and audio are easier to deliver via CD-Rom than over the Web.)
  • When all of these components are united, it is important to establish clear procedures for modification so that updated versions are not overwritten by earlier ones.
slide12

Development Phase

  • In many cases, support materials must also be created. These can include user manuals, teachers' manuals, technical manuals, and additional teaching and learning materials.
  • Alpha testing involves a thorough review of all aspects of the program and supplemental materials by the design and development team. Problems should then be discussed and corrected; these changes should be well-documented.
  • Then the product is given to the client for beta testing. Beta testing is a formal process that generally includes the following steps: selection of learners; explanation of the test procedure; determination of the learners' level of prior knowledge (this may already have been done as an initial step in order to obtain an appropriate learner pool); observe the learners using the program; interview them after they complete the program; assess the learning which occurred; revise the program as needed.
  • Following the completion of all testing and revisions, the product is given to the client for final approval (sign-off). Turning the program over to the client does not mean forgetting about it. Even the most rigorous alpha and beta testing cannot substitute for evaluating a program's effectiveness in the real world. The process of determining how well an instructional product helps its users attain the desired learning outcome is called validation. This real-world evaluation should look at a variety of aspects of the program's effectiveness.
slide13

References

REFERENCES

Alessi, S.M and Trollip, S.R, Multimedia for Learning Methods and

Development, 3rd Edition, Allyn & Bacon (2001).

Christopher Jolly (2000). The Jolly Phonics Story. Journal of the Simplified

Spelling Society, J28.

Diana Bartlett and Sylvia Moody, Dyslexia in the Workplace, Whurr Publishers,

London (2000).

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, 3rd Edition, Addison

Wesley (2000).

Janet Valade, PHP and MySQL for dummies, 2nd edition, Wiley Publishing

(2004).

Michael Glass,Yann Le Scouarnec, Elizabeth Naramore, Gary Mailer, Jeremy

Stolz,Jason Gerner, Beginning PHP, Apache, MySQL Web Development, Wiley

Publishing (2004).

Marian Annett, Elizabeth Eglinton &Pamela Smythe (1996). Types of Dyslexia

and the Shift to Dextrality. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol 37,