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Regulators and Flowmeters. RET 2274 Respiratory Care Theory 1 Module 3.0. Regulators and Flowmeters. Regulating Gas Pressure and Flow

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regulators and flowmeters

Regulators and Flowmeters

RET 2274

Respiratory Care Theory 1

Module 3.0

regulators and flowmeters2
Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Regulating Gas Pressure and Flow
    • Cylinder gases exert too high of a pressure for use with respiratory equipment, and must be reduced to a working pressure of 50 psig (pounds per square inch gauge)
    • This standard pressure can be applied to power devices such as IPPB, pneumatic precursors, ventilators, etc.
    • Reducing valves are used to reduce high pressure to a working pressure
regulators and flowmeters3
Regulators and Flowmeters
  • High-Pressure Reducing Valves
    • Two types
      • Single Stage
      • Multiple Stage

Available as preset or adjustable

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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • High-Pressure Reducing Valves
    • Preset Reducing Valve
      • Automatic adjustment of the diaphragm-spring combination keeps the pressure in the high-pressure chamber at a near-constant 50 psig; thus the name preset
        • Refer to Egan’s Fundamentals of Respiratory Care, Eighth Edition for a complete working description
regulators and flowmeters5
Regulators and Flowmeters
  • High-Pressure Reducing Valves
    • Preset Reducing Valve

(A) High-pressure inlet

(B) Pressure gauge

(H) High-Pressure gas inlet

(C) High-pressure chamber

(I) Gas outlet

(G) Valve stem

(E) Flexible diaphragm

(D) Ambient-pressure chamber

(F) Spring

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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • High-Pressure Reducing Valves
    • Adjustable Reducing Valve
      • Some devices need variable pressures
      • The adjustable reducing valve allows a change in outlet pressure via a threaded hand control attached to the diaphragm
        • Refer to Egan’s Fundamentals of Respiratory Care, Eighth Edition for a complete working description
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • High-Pressure Reducing Valves
    • Multiple-Stage Reducing Valve
      • Can be preset or adjustable
      • Reduces pressure in two or more steps
        • First stage – pressure is lowered to an intermediate level (200 – 700 psig)
        • Second stage – pressure is decreased to working level (50 psig)
        • Provide more precise and smooth flow control
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Low-Pressure Gas Flowmeters
      • Flowmeters are needed to set and control the rate of gas flow to a patient, either from a station outlet or a high-pressure cylinder
      • When using a a high-pressure cylinder as the gas source, a regulator (reducing valve plus flowmeter) is required
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Low-Pressure Gas Flowmeters
    • Three categories of flowmeters
      • Flow restrictor
      • Bourdon gage
      • Thorpe tube
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Low-Pressure Gas Flowmeters
    • Flow restrictor
      • Consists of a fixed orifice calibrated to deliver a specific flow at a constant pressure (50 psig)
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Low-Pressure Gas Flowmeters
    • Fixed Orifice Flowmeter
      • Provide specific flow rate settings by selecting or adjusting an outlet orifice size
      • This unit incorporates a reducing valve and fixed orifice flowmeter
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Low-Pressure Gas Flowmeters
    • Bourdon Gage
      • A flow-metering device that is always used in conjunction with an adjustable pressure reducing valve
      • It is a fixed orifice, variable-pressure, flow metering device
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Bourdon Gage
    • Hollow tube straightens as gas pressure increases – increasing flow through the fixed orifice
    • Will work in any position – ideal for transport
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Bourdon Gage
    • Not back-pressure compensated
    • As resistance to flow increases, the indicated flow reading becomes inaccurate
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Low-Pressure Gas Flowmeters
    • Thorpe Tube
      • Always attached to a 50 psig gas source – either a station outlet or a pressure reducing valve
      • It is a variable orifice, constant-pressure flow-metering device
      • Measures true flow
        • Refer to Egan’s Fundamentals of Respiratory Care, Eighth Edition for a complete working description
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Thorpe Tube
    • Two types
      • Pressure uncompensated vs. Pressure compensated
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Thorpe Tube
    • Pressure uncompensated
      • Uncompensated for backpressure
      • Needle valve is proximal to the Thorpe tube
      • If pressure is applied distally to the tube, e.g., kinked tubing, flow indication may be lower than delivered flow
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Thorpe Tube
    • Pressure compensated
      • Compensated for backpressure
      • Needle valve is distal to the Thorpe tube
      • If pressure is applied distally to the tube, e.g., flow-restricted equipment or kinked tubing, it will have NO effect on the flowmeter’s performance. The float will be an actual reading of flow delivered
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Ranges of Flowmeters
    • High-range

0 – 75 L/min (5-L/min intervals)

        • CPAP and high-flow oxygen delivery devices
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Ranges of Flowmeters
    • Low-range

0 – 3 L/min (1/4-L/min intervals)

        • Pediatric and COPD patients
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Ranges of Flowmeters
    • Standard

0 – 15 L/min (1-L/min interval)

        • Most oxygen delivery devices
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Correctly Reading a Flowmeter
    • Ball-float flowmeter
      • Read from the middle of the ball

6 L/min

2 L/min

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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Correctly Reading a Flowmeter
    • Bobbin flowmeter
      • Read from the top of the bobbin

2 L/min

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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Mini Clinic – Select the Proper Device

Problem:

An RT has an order to transport a patient to radiology with oxygen. What equipment should the therapist select?

Solution:

Because the RT has to transport a patient using oxygen, they should select an E cylinder with an adjustable regulator that includes a Bourdon gauge (unaffected by gravity)

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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Mini Clinic – Select the Proper Device

Problem:

An RT has to set up a pneumatically powered ventilator with oxygen in the ambulatory clinic, where there are not oxygen outlets. What equipment should the therapist select?

Solution:

Because pneumatically powered ventilators require 50 psig and no central oxygen outlets are available, the RT needs a preset reducing valve and a large H cylinder of oxygen.

regulators and flowmeters26
Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Mini Clinic – Select the Proper Device

Problem:

An RT has to set up oxygen therapy with a jet nebulizer for a patient in the ICU. What equipment should the RT select?

Solution:

Because moderns ICUs have central wall outlets for oxygen, The RT needs only select a flowmeter. A compensated Thorpe tube is required for metering flow through high-resistance equipment such as jet nebulizers

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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder
    • Select the proper gas cylinder
      • Ensure content of cylinder by checking the label
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder
    • Remove protective covering from cylinder outlet
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder
    • “Crack” the cylinder to remove dust, debris and moisture
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder
    • Select the appropriate gas regulator
      • Ensure that a plastic washer is in place
regulators and flowmeters31
Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder
    • Attach the gas regulator to the cylinder valve
      • It should fit into place easily - DO NOT FORCE IT!!!
regulators and flowmeters32
Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder
    • Tighten the fittings in place
regulators and flowmeters33
Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder
    • Open the cylinder valve SLOWLY and pressurize the regulator, note the amount of gas pressure in tank – listen for leaks

Cylinder Wrenches

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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder
    • Set the flowmeter to the prescribed flow rate and attach the oxygen delivery device
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Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder
    • Place the oxygen delivery device on the patient and monitor vital signs
regulators and flowmeters36
Regulators and Flowmeters
  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder
    • Place the oxygen delivery device on the patient and monitor vital signs
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