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What is Respiration?. a process of oxidizing food to release energy inside cells. oxygen. food (sugar). energy. carbon dioxide. water. Burning of Food. A demonstration of energy released from food. Burning. carbon dioxide + water + energy ( heat + light ). food(sugar) + oxygen.

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slide2

What is Respiration?

  • a process of oxidizing food to release energy inside cells
slide3

oxygen

food (sugar)

energy

carbon dioxide

water

Burning of Food

  • A demonstration of energy released from food

Burning

slide4

carbon dioxide+water+energy(heat+light)

food(sugar) + oxygen

  • does not occur in living cells because the reaction is too fast and cells would die as they become so hot
slide5

enzymes

Respiration

  • reactions are catalyzed byenzymes
  • main food substance which oxidized in cells is glucose

C6H12O6

+ 6O2

+ energy

6CO2

+ 6H2O

  • as it takes place in all living cells, it is called cellular respiration which is used to produce energy for cells to use
slide6

Comparison of Burning and Respiration

  • Similarities

-both involve oxidative processes

- both require the use of oxygen and food and they produce the same products of carbon dioxide and water

- both reactions release energy

slide7

Burning

Respiration

  • takes place in air or oxygen
  • takes place in cells
  • a series of chemical reactions
  • a single-step process
  • no enzymes involved
  • controlled by enzymes
  • Differences
slide8

Burning

Respiration

  • energy is released in form of heat and light (a flame can result)
  • energy is released in form of heat and an energy-rich compound
  • energy release is vigorous and not under control
  • energy release is slower and under control
  • Differences
slide9

Investigation 9.1

To Demonstrate Heat Production by Respiring Animals using a Differential Air Thermometer

slide10

graph paper

clip

clip

A

B

stoppered air-filled test tube

stoppered air-filled test tube

U-shaped capillary tube filled with coloured liquid

cotton wool

cotton wool

mouse

What is the function of the clips ?

Ans:To equalize the pressure on the two sides of the capillary tube.

slide11

graph paper

clip

clip

A

B

stoppered air-filled test tube

stoppered air-filled test tube

U-shaped capillary tube filled with coloured liquid

cotton wool

cotton wool

mouse

Why should the containers be wrapped in cotton wool ?

Ans:It acts as an insulator to prevent heat loss.

slide12

graph paper

clip

clip

A

B

stoppered air-filled test tube

stoppered air-filled test tube

U-shaped capillary tube filled with coloured liquid

cotton wool

cotton wool

mouse

Which is preferable, a capillary tube with a wide bore or one with a narrow bore ?

Ans:A capillary tube with a narrow bore is preferred than the wide one as it is more sensitive and will give better results.

slide13

graph paper

clip

clip

A

B

stoppered air-filled test tube

stoppered air-filled test tube

U-shaped capillary tube filled with coloured liquid

cotton wool

cotton wool

mouse

What happens to the levels of the coloured liquid ?

Ans:The coloured liquid rises up the left arm of the U-shaped capillary tube.

slide14

graph paper

clip

clip

A

B

stoppered air-filled test tube

stoppered air-filled test tube

U-shaped capillary tube filled with coloured liquid

cotton wool

cotton wool

mouse

Why ?

Ans:Because the mouse in container B carries out respiration to release heat energy which warms up the air in the test tube.

slide15

Investigation 9.2

To Demonstrate Heat Production by Germinating Seeds using Thermos Flasks

slide16

B

A

thermos flask

Seeds killed

by boiling

germinating seeds

cotton wool

thermometer

Which thermos flask shows a higher temperature

at the end of the experiment ?

Ans:Flask A showed a higher temperature at the end of the experiment.

slide17

B

A

thermos flask

Seeds killed

by boiling

germinating seeds

cotton wool

thermometer

Why ?

Ans:It is because living seeds produce heat energy.

slide18

B

A

thermos flask

Seeds killed

by boiling

germinating seeds

cotton wool

thermometer

What is the purpose of washing the seeds with a disinfectant ?

Ans:To kill any bacteria and fungi present on the seeds.

slide19

B

A

thermos flask

Seeds killed

by boiling

germinating seeds

cotton wool

thermometer

It is advisable not to fill the flasks completely with seeds. Why ?

Ans:To provide air for the seeds to respire.

slide20

B

A

thermos flask

Seeds killed

by boiling

germinating seeds

cotton wool

thermometer

Why are the flasks supported in the upside-down position ?

slide21

Ans:The flasks are supported in the upside-down position because

  • carbon dioxide, produced during respiration of the living seeds, is a heavier gas and may escape through the cotton wool.
  • hot air rises up, and inverting it will ensure that heat will not escape through the cotton wool.
  • it is easier to read the thermometer as the thermos flasks are not transparent.
slide22

Investigation 9.3

To Show Production of Carbon Dioxide by a Respiring Animal

slide23

to suction pump

B

A

C

bell jar

lime water

potassium hydroxide solution

glass plate

lime water

mouse

Why is it necessary to bubble the incoming air through potassium hydroxide solution before it is supplied to the mouse ?

Ans:It is used to remove carbon dioxide in the incoming air.

slide24

to suction pump

B

A

C

bell jar

lime water

potassium hydroxide solution

glass plate

lime water

mouse

Which solution changes colour at the end of the experiment ? What does this show ?

Ans: The lime water in flask C turns milky. It is because carbon dioxide is given off by the mouse.

slide25

Investigation 9.4

To Show the Release of Carbon Dioxide by Germinating Seeds

slide26

thread

thread

muslin bag

seeds (heat-killed)

germinating seeds

moist cotton wool

hydrogencarbonate indicator solution

B

A

Why is it necessary to wash the seeds with a disinfectant ?

Ans: It is used to kill microorganisms.

slide27

thread

thread

muslin bag

seeds (heat-killed)

germinating seeds

moist cotton wool

hydrogencarbonate indicator solution

B

A

What is the function of the moist cotton wool inside the muslin bag ?

Ans: It prevents the seeds from drying out.

slide28

thread

thread

muslin bag

seeds (heat-killed)

germinating seeds

moist cotton wool

hydrogencarbonate indicator solution

B

A

What has happened to the hydrogencarbonate indicator solution in the two tubes ?

Ans: Indicator solution in tube A turns yellow while the indicator solution in tube B remains unchanged.

slide29

thread

thread

muslin bag

seeds (heat-killed)

germinating seeds

moist cotton wool

hydrogencarbonate indicator solution

B

A

What can be concluded from this experiment ?

Ans: Carbon dioxide is released by the germinating seeds.

slide30

Uses of the Energy Released during Respiration

Human

Other Animals

Plants

  • produce light in fireflies
  • absorb mineral salts by active transport
  • muscle contraction
  • keep warm
  • produce sound in some birds
  • transport food substances
  • absorb food by active transport
  • produce smell in some mammals
slide31

ATP

  • energy is mainly released as heat and ATP during respiration in cells
  • however, during respiration, some ATP should be consumed first before other ATP can be formed
  • the ATP consumed is used to form other ATP from ADP and phosphate groups
slide32

ATP

ADP

+ phosphate

+ energy (from breakdown of glucose)

  • ATP is a high-energy compound while ADP is a low-energy one
  • ATP can only store energy for a short period
  • ATP is made inside organelles, mitochondria, which is scattered in the cytoplasm of a cell
slide33

Anaerobic Respiration

  • respiration in human is mainly aerobic respiration as oxygen is essential
  • when oxygen is not needed during respiration, it is called anaerobic respiration
  • yeast and muscle cells are examples which they can respire anaerobically for a short time
slide34

enzymes

Alcoholic Fermentation

  • without oxygen, yeast cells respire as follows:

C6H12O6

2CO2

+ 2C2H5OH (ethanol)

+ energy

  • amount of energy released anaerobically is smaller when compared with the aerobic method
slide35

anaerobic respiration

aerobic respiration

amount of energy released

large

small

oxidation of glucose

completely

partly

place of occurrence

mitochondria

cytoplasm

industrial use of yeast fermentation
Industrial Use of Yeast Fermentation
  • alcohol produced is used for:
    • brewing beer
    • making wine
  • carbon dioxide released is used for:
    • baking bread
slide37

people cannot supply enough oxygen to muscles even they breathe faster and deeper

Lactic Acid Fermentation

  • extra oxygen is required for undertaking sternuous exercise
slide38

muscle need to produce energy anaerobically by breaking down glucose into lactic acid

enzymes

+ energy

2C3H6O3

C6H12O6

  • lactic acid will cause muscle fatigue and muscle cramps if they are allowed to accumulate
slide39

a large amount of oxygen is needed to break down the accumulated lactic acid into carbon dioxide and water or turn to glycogen in liver for storage so we pant after doing exercise

  • the amount of oxygen required to get rid of lactic acid is called oxygen debt
slide40

Investigation 9.5

To Show Anaerobic Respiration of Germinating Seeds in Oil

slide41

germinating seeds

gas

wire gauze

paraffin oil

syringe

at the start

after two days

hydrogencarbonate indicator solution

Does the boiling tube contain a gas after 2 days?

Ans: Yes.

slide42

germinating seeds

gas

wire gauze

paraffin oil

syringe

at the start

after two days

hydrogencarbonate indicator solution

What happens to the hydrogencarbonate indicator solution when the gas is bubbled through it?

Ans: The solution turns yellow.

slide43

germinating seeds

gas

wire gauze

paraffin oil

syringe

at the start

after two days

hydrogencarbonate indicator solution

What is the gas produced?

Ans: It is carbon dioxide.

slide44

germinating seeds

gas

wire gauze

paraffin oil

syringe

at the start

after two days

hydrogencarbonate indicator solution

What can be learned about the respiration of germinating seeds from this experiment?

Ans: Germinating seeds can respire anaerobically and release carbon dioxide in the absence of oxygen.

slide45

Investigation 9.6

To Show Production of Ethanol and Carbon Dioxide during Fermentation of Glucose by Yeast

slide46

thermometer

thermos flask

liquid paraffin

yeast in glucose solution which has been previously boiled and then cooled down

hydrogencarbonate indicator solution

Why is it important to boil the glucose solution?

Ans: This drives off any dissolved oxygen.

slide47

thermometer

thermos flask

liquid paraffin

yeast in glucose solution which has been previously boiled and then cooled down

hydrogencarbonate indicator solution

Why must the glucose solution be cooled down before

yeast is added?

Ans:It is because yeast would be killed when hot.

slide48

thermometer

thermos flask

liquid paraffin

yeast in glucose solution which has been previously boiled and then cooled down

hydrogencarbonate indicator solution

What is the function of liquid paraffin?

Ans:It prevents the mixture from coming into contact with air.

slide49

thermometer

thermos flask

liquid paraffin

yeast in glucose solution which has been previously boiled and then cooled down

hydrogencarbonate indicator solution

What has happened to the hydrogencarbonate indicator solution?

Ans:The hydrogencarbonate indicator solution has changed from red to yellow.

slide50

thermometer

thermos flask

liquid paraffin

yeast in glucose solution which has been previously boiled and then cooled down

hydrogencarbonate indicator solution

What does this show?

Ans:This shows that yeast can respire anaerobically to produce energy.

slide51

thermometer

thermos flask

liquid paraffin

yeast in glucose solution which has been previously boiled and then cooled down

hydrogencarbonate indicator solution

What has happened to the reading of each thermometer?

Ans:The reading of the thermometer of the experimental set-up rises.

slide52

thermometer

thermos flask

liquid paraffin

yeast in glucose solution which has been previously boiled and then cooled down

hydrogencarbonate indicator solution

At the end of the experiment, what new substance would you expect to find in the glucose solution containing living yeast?

Ans:We can find alcohol in it.

slide53

Comparison of Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

  • Similarity
  • Sugar is broken down to release energy
  • ATP is made
  • Both are controlled by enzymes
slide54

aerobic respiration

anaerobic respiration

oxygen requirement

essential

nil

oxidation of sugar

complete oxidation

incomplete oxidation

energy released

large amount

small amount

  • Differences
slide55

aerobic respiration

anaerobic respiration

organic: ethanol or lactic acid

end products

inorganic: CO2 and H2O

in lower organisms (e.g. bacteria and yeast) and vertebrate muscles

in most living cells

occurrence

slide56

aerobic respiration

photosynthesis

produces carbon dioxide and water

requires carbon dioxide and water

energy is released

energy (light) is absorbed

an oxidative process

a reductive process

Differences between Respiration and Photosynthesis

slide57

aerobic respiration

photosynthesis

a breaking down process

a synthetic process

occurs in all living cells at all times

occurs in green plants only when light is available

occurs in chloroplasts

occurs in mitochondria