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Gangs and Social Disorganization. How Ya Doin’?. MCF-Red Wing site visit head count (4/14?) Papers (4/21) Arrangements for 2 nd midterm exam In-class Thursday, May 5 OR 8:00am - 10:00am Tuesday, May 10 . next. Thursday – no class! Spring Break: Tuesday 3/22 – anomie theory.

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Presentation Transcript
how ya doin
How Ya Doin’?
  • MCF-Red Wing site visit head count (4/14?)
  • Papers (4/21)
  • Arrangements for 2nd midterm exam
    • In-class Thursday, May 5 OR
    • 8:00am - 10:00am Tuesday, May 10
slide3
next
  • Thursday – no class!
  • Spring Break:
  • Tuesday 3/22 – anomie theory
gangs class and delinquency
Gangs, Class, and Delinquency
  • Criminologists’ perspectives
    • Thrasher and other definitions
    • Social structural causes
  • Gang member’s perspective: Sanyika Shakur’s perspective
  • Police perspective: Film/Lecture: Sgt Mike Martin: Gangs in Minnesota
    • How does he define a gang?
    • What does he think causes gangs? Individual and Societal level causes
    • What is the “importation hypothesis?”
social structural theories
Social Structural Theories
  • Contrast with individual or social-psychological theories
    • Social Disorganization
    • Anomie and Opportunity
    • Conflict
    • Gender-based
  • “Root” social and cultural causes
  • Then, Delinquent Careers in the Juvenile Justice System
social disorganization theory
Social Disorganization Theory
  • Background
    • Race, ethnicity, and “Born Criminals”
    • Clifford Shaw & Henry McKay (1942) : a sharp rebuke to racist stereotypes
  • Assumptions
    • Delinquency due to breakdown of community institutional controls
    • Normative consensus
    • Disorganization is caused by rapid social change (industrialization, urbanization, immigration)
    • Social disorganization leads to self-perpetuating criminal values and traditions
social disorganization
Social Disorganization
  • Conceptual Tools
    • Social disorganization
    • Ethnic succession
    • Cultural transmission of delinquent traditions
  • Methods
    • Maps! Descriptive statistics
    • Life histories
  • Critique
    • Ecological stability
    • Ethnic groups do not intermingle
    • Measurement: “disorganization” = crime
slide9
SIMPLIFIED SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION DIAGRAM
  • Social Change
  • Industrialization
  • Urbanization
  • Immigration
  • [tie to poverty,
  • mobility,
  • heterogeneity]

Weakened

institutional

& informal

social controls

Development of

spontaneous

play groups

and gangs

Cultural

Transmission

of delinquent

traditions

High delinquency

rates

policy and extensions
policy and extensions
  • Policy Implications: Chicago Area Projects
    • Recreation, neighborhood health and sanitation, indigenous gang workers
    • No evaluation data
  • Replications
    • Boston Midcity project (no effect)
    • “moving to opportunity” experiment today shows some promise in reducing violent crime
  • Extensions: Robert Sampson and “Neighborhood Collective Efficacy”
    • Survey measures of neighborhood cohesion and informal social controls
    • Videotaping physical and social disorder
extensions robert sampson
Extensions: Robert Sampson
  • “Collective Efficacy” of neighborhoods
    • Survey for neighborhood cohesion and informal social controls
    • Videotaping physical and social disorder
  • Neighborhoods that can realize their own values have lower crime rates