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DNA Structure - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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DNA Structure. DNA Structure. DNA consists of two molecules that are arranged into a ladder-like structure called a Double Helix . A molecule of DNA is made up of millions of tiny subunits called Nucleotides . Each nucleotide consists of: Phosphate group Pentose sugar Nitrogenous base.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

DNA

Structure

dna structure
DNA Structure
  • DNA consists of two molecules that are arranged into a ladder-like structure called a Double Helix.
  • A molecule of DNA is made up of millions of tiny subunits called Nucleotides.
  • Each nucleotide consists of:
    • Phosphate group
    • Pentose sugar
    • Nitrogenous base
nucleotides
Nucleotides

Phosphate

Nitrogenous

Base

Pentose

Sugar

nucleotides4
Nucleotides
  • The phosphate and sugar form the backbone of the DNA molecule, whereas the bases form the “rungs”.
  • There are four types of nitrogenous bases.
nucleotides5
Nucleotides

A

T

C

Adenine

Thymine

G

Guanine

Cytosine

nucleotides6
Nucleotides
  • Each base will only bond with one other specific base.
  • Adenine (A)
  • Thymine (T)
  • Cytosine (C)
  • Guanine (G)

Form a base pair.

Form a base pair.

dna structure7
DNA Structure
  • Because of this complementary base pairing, the order of the bases in one strand determines the order of the bases in the other strand.
slide8

A

T

A

A

A

T

T

T

C

C

C

G

G

G

dna structure9
DNA Structure
  • To crack the genetic code found in DNA we need to look at the sequence of bases.
  • The bases are arranged in triplets called codons.

A G G - C T C - A A G - T C C - T A G

T C C - G A G - T T C - A G G - A T C

dna structure10
DNA Structure
  • A gene is a section of DNA that codes for a protein.
  • Each unique gene has a unique sequence of bases.
  • This unique sequence of bases will code for the production of a unique protein.
  • It is these proteins and combination of proteins that give us a unique phenotype.
slide11

DNA

Gene

Protein

Trait

your task
Your Task
  • Draw a flow chart to show how to get from:
slide13

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