An Invitation to Health Chapter 5: The Joy of Fitness Prepared by: Andrew Owusu Ph.D.
Chapter 5 Objectives List the five components of health-related fitness. Describe the health benefits of regular physical activity. List the different forms of cardiorespiratory activities and describe their potential health benefits and risks. Explain the benefits of a muscle training program and describe their potential health benefits and risks.
Chapter 5 Objectives List the potential health risks of strength-enhancing drugs and supplements. Define flexibility and describe the different types of stretching exercises. Describe the PRICE plan for handling an exercise injury. Assess yourself in the five components of health-related fitness, and develop a strategy to improve in at least two of them.
What Is Physical Fitness? Definition The ability to respond to routine physical demands, with enough reserve energy to cope with a sudden challenge.
The Five Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness 1. Aerobic and Cardiorespiratory Endurance 4. Flexibility 5. Body Composition 2. Muscular Strength 3. Muscular Endurance
Athletic or Performance-Related Fitness • Agility • Balance or equilibrium • Coordination • Power • Reaction time • Speed or velocity
Fitness and the Dimensions of Health Physical Health Emotional Health Social Health Intellectual Health Occupational Health Spiritual Health Environmental Health
Physiological Differences Between Men and Women Female Male Percent fat 15% 27% Lean body mass 107.8 pounds 134.2 pounds Blood volume 4.5-5 liters 5-6 liters Maximum oxygen consumption 5.5-5.9 liters per minute 3-3.5 liters per minute Fig. 5-1, p. 109
The Benefits of Exercise Improves your mood, reduces psychological symptoms, and sharpens your thinking. Increases your respiratory capacity. Reduces your risk of heart disease. Lowers your body fat and reduces your weight. Strengthens your bones and increases joint flexibility. Increases your muscle strength and tone. Improves your circulation. Improves your digestion and your fat metabolism. Fig. 5-2, p. 111
Why Exercise? Healthier Heart and Lungs Protection Against Cancer Less Risk of Disease Brighter Mood Better Mental Health and Functioning Better Bones Lower Weight Sexuality A More Active Old Age Longer Life
Motivating Yourself to Move • Sign up for a fitness class. • Go to the gym with friends. • Find a fun workout. • Join a team – or root for one. • Do double-duty. Strategies for Change, pg. 109
The Principles of Exercise • Overload Principle • Progressive overloading • FITT Principle • Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type • Reversibility Principle • Opposite of the overload principle • Individuality • Cross-Training
State of fitness after adaptation to overload The Overload Principle Increased exercise overload State of fitness after adaptation to overload Exercise overload Current fitness state Fig. 5-3, p. 115
Aerobic Activities Aerobic Exercise Physical activity in which sufficient or excess oxygen is continually supplied to the body. Examples • Brisk walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, water aerobics, and rope skipping. • Improves cardiorespiratory endurance.
Anaerobic Activities Anaerobic Exercise Physical activity in which the body develops an oxygen deficit. Examples • Sprinting, weight lifting • High intensity activities of short duration, usually lasting only about 10 seconds to 2 minutes.
Target Heart Rate for Different Ages and Various Levels of Activity Fig 5-4, pg 118
Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) 0 Nothing at all Extremely weak (just noticeable) 0.5 Revised Scale for Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) 1 Very weak 2 Weak (light) 8 Moderate Correlate to target heart rate Somewhat strong 4 Strong (heavy) 5 6 7 Very strong 8 9 Extremely strong (almost maximum) 10 Fig. 5-5, p. 118
Designing an Aerobic Workout Stages of an Aerobic Workout Warm-Up Aerobic Activity Cool-Down Developing A Long Term Plan Beginning (4-6 weeks) Progression (16-20 weeks) Maintenance (lifelong)
Aerobic Options • Stepping Out: Walk the Walk • American on the Move • 10,000 steps or 5 miles per day. • Jogging and Running • Distance vs. interval training • Swimming • At least 20 minutes per session. • Note: your heart beats more slowly in water than on land. • Cycling • Target heart rate for at least 20 minutes. • Be safe.
Other Aerobic Activities Spinning Cardio Kickboxing Rowing Skipping Rope Aerobic Dancing Step Training Stair-Climbing Inline Skating Tennis
Building Muscular Fitness Muscular Fitness Muscular Strength The maximal force that a muscle or group of muscles can generate for one movement Muscular Endurance The capacity to sustain repeated muscle actions
Strength workouts increase circulation Strength workouts build muscles The heart’s right half pumps oxygen-poor blood to capillary beds in lungs. There, O2 diffuses into blood and CO2 diffuses out. The oxygenated blood flows into the heart’s left half where it is then pumped to capillary beds throughout the body. Benefits of Strength Training the Body Outer sheath of connective tissue muscle (toughened by strength workouts) Bundles of muscle cells surrounded by connective tissue (more connective tissue develops from strength workouts) Heart Capillary bed before strength workouts Capillary bed after 8–12 weeks of strength workouts (extra capillaries develop, circulation increases) Fig. 5-7, p. 122
Trapezius Deltoid Pectoralis major Serratus anterior Pectoralis minor Biceps brachii External oblique Rectus abdominus Internal oblique Sartorious Quadriceps femoris Primary Muscle Groups Fig. 5-8a, p. 124
Primary Muscle Groups Trapezius Rhomboid minor Rhomboid major Triceps Erector spinae Serratus posterior Latissimus dorsi Gluteus maximus Hamstrings Gastrocnemius Fig. 5-8b, p. 124