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An Invitation to Health Chapter 5: The Joy of Fitness Prepared by: Andrew Owusu Ph.D. Chapter 5 Objectives List the five components of health-related fitness. Describe the health benefits of regular physical activity.

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An Invitation to Health

Chapter 5:

The Joy of Fitness

Prepared by: Andrew Owusu Ph.D.

chapter 5 objectives
Chapter 5 Objectives

List the five components of health-related fitness.

Describe the health benefits of

regular physical activity.

List the different forms of cardiorespiratory activities and describe their potential health benefits and risks.

Explain the benefits of a muscle training program and describe their potential health benefits and risks.

chapter 5 objectives3
Chapter 5 Objectives

List the potential health risks of strength-enhancing drugs and supplements.

Define flexibility and describe the different types of stretching exercises.

Describe the PRICE plan for handling an exercise injury.

Assess yourself in the five components of health-related fitness, and develop a strategy to improve in at least two of them.

what is physical fitness
What Is Physical Fitness?


The ability to respond to routine physical demands, with enough reserve energy to cope with a sudden challenge.

the five health related components of physical fitness
The Five Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness

1. Aerobic and Cardiorespiratory Endurance

4. Flexibility

5. Body


2. Muscular Strength

3. Muscular Endurance

athletic or performance related fitness
Athletic or Performance-Related Fitness
  • Agility
  • Balance or equilibrium
  • Coordination
  • Power
  • Reaction time
  • Speed or velocity
fitness and the dimensions of health
Fitness and the Dimensions of Health

Physical Health

Emotional Health

Social Health

Intellectual Health

Occupational Health

Spiritual Health

Environmental Health


Physiological Differences Between Men and Women



Percent fat



Lean body mass

107.8 pounds

134.2 pounds

Blood volume

4.5-5 liters

5-6 liters

Maximum oxygen consumption

5.5-5.9 liters per minute

3-3.5 liters per minute

Fig. 5-1, p. 109


The Benefits of Exercise

Improves your mood, reduces psychological symptoms, and sharpens your thinking.

Increases your respiratory capacity.

Reduces your risk of heart disease.

Lowers your body fat and reduces your weight.

Strengthens your bones and increases joint flexibility.

Increases your muscle strength and tone.

Improves your circulation.

Improves your digestion and your fat metabolism.

Fig. 5-2, p. 111

why exercise
Why Exercise?

Healthier Heart and Lungs

Protection Against Cancer

Less Risk of Disease

Brighter Mood

Better Mental Health and Functioning

Better Bones

Lower Weight


A More Active Old Age

Longer Life

motivating yourself to move
Motivating Yourself to Move
  • Sign up for a fitness class.
  • Go to the gym with friends.
  • Find a fun workout.
  • Join a team – or root for one.
  • Do double-duty.

Strategies for Change, pg. 109

the principles of exercise
The Principles of Exercise
  • Overload Principle
    • Progressive overloading
  • FITT Principle
    • Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type
  • Reversibility Principle
    • Opposite of the overload principle
  • Individuality
  • Cross-Training

State of fitness after adaptation to overload

The Overload Principle

Increased exercise overload

State of fitness after adaptation to overload

Exercise overload

Current fitness state

Fig. 5-3, p. 115

aerobic activities
Aerobic Activities

Aerobic Exercise

Physical activity in which sufficient or excess oxygen is continually supplied to the body.


  • Brisk walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, water aerobics, and rope skipping.
  • Improves cardiorespiratory endurance.
anaerobic activities
Anaerobic Activities

Anaerobic Exercise

Physical activity in which the body develops an oxygen deficit.


  • Sprinting, weight lifting
  • High intensity activities of short duration, usually lasting only about 10 seconds to 2 minutes.

Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE)


Nothing at all

Extremely weak (just noticeable)


Revised Scale for Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE)


Very weak


Weak (light)



Correlate to target heart rate

Somewhat strong


Strong (heavy)




Very strong



Extremely strong (almost maximum)


Fig. 5-5, p. 118

designing an aerobic workout
Designing an Aerobic Workout

Stages of an Aerobic Workout


Aerobic Activity


Developing A

Long Term Plan

Beginning (4-6 weeks)

Progression (16-20 weeks)

Maintenance (lifelong)

aerobic options
Aerobic Options
  • Stepping Out: Walk the Walk
    • American on the Move
      • 10,000 steps or 5 miles per day.
  • Jogging and Running
    • Distance vs. interval training
  • Swimming
    • At least 20 minutes per session.
    • Note: your heart beats more slowly in water than on land.
  • Cycling
    • Target heart rate for at least 20 minutes.
    • Be safe.
other aerobic activities
Other Aerobic Activities


Cardio Kickboxing


Skipping Rope

Aerobic Dancing

Step Training


Inline Skating


building muscular fitness
Building Muscular Fitness

Muscular Fitness

Muscular Strength

The maximal force that a muscle

or group of muscles can generate

for one movement

Muscular Endurance

The capacity to sustain repeated

muscle actions


Strength workouts increase circulation

Strength workouts build muscles

The heart’s right half pumps oxygen-poor blood to capillary beds in lungs. There, O2 diffuses into blood and CO2 diffuses out. The oxygenated blood flows into the heart’s left half where it is then pumped to capillary beds throughout the body.

Benefits of Strength Training the Body

Outer sheath of connective tissue muscle (toughened by strength workouts)

Bundles of muscle cells surrounded by

connective tissue (more connective

tissue develops from strength workouts)


Capillary bed before

strength workouts

Capillary bed after 8–12 weeks of strength workouts

(extra capillaries develop, circulation increases)

Fig. 5-7, p. 122




Pectoralis major

Serratus anterior

Pectoralis minor

Biceps brachii

External oblique

Rectus abdominus

Internal oblique


Quadriceps femoris

Primary Muscle Groups

Fig. 5-8a, p. 124


Primary Muscle Groups


Rhomboid minor

Rhomboid major


Erector spinae

Serratus posterior

Latissimus dorsi

Gluteus maximus



Fig. 5-8b, p. 124

core strength conditioning
Core Strength Conditioning

Core Strength:

  • The ability of the muscles to support your spine and keep your body stable and balanced.


  • Improvements in posture, breathing, appearance, and performance in sports, while reducing your risk of muscle strain.

Muscles of the Core:

  • Transverse abdominus; external and internal obliques; rectus abdominus.

Prevention of


Relief of

Muscle Strain

Better Athletic


The Benefits of



Improved Posture

Relief of Soreness

After Exercise

strategies for prevention back talk
When Standing:

Shift your weight from one foot to the other or place your foot 4 to 6 inches off the ground.

Hold in your stomach.

Tilt your pelvis toward your back.

Tuck in your buttocks.

When Sitting:

Sit in a straight chair with a firm back.

Avoid slouching.

When Driving:

Keep your seat so your knees are raised to hip level.

Do not fully extend your right leg.

A small pillow or towel can help support your lower back.

Strategies for PreventionBack Talk
strategies for prevention back talk65
When Sleeping:

Sleep on a flat, firm mattress.

Sleep on your side with both knees bent at right angles to your torso.

Keep your head on your pillow in such a manner that it is in line with your body.

When Lifting:

Bend at the knees, not from the waist.

Get close to the load.

Tighten your stomach muscles and don’t hold your breath.

Let your leg muscles do the work.

Don’t Smoke!

Strategies for PreventionBack Talk
body composition
Body Composition

Body Mass Index (BMI)

  • A mathematical formula that correlates with body fat; the ratio of weight to height squared.
    • Healthy: 18.5 to 24.9
    • Overweight: BMI > 25.0-29.9
      • Associated with an increased risk of diseases such as Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, adult-onset diabetes (type 2), and sleep.
    • Obesity: BMI >30.0-39.9
      • Associated with an increased risk of death.
    • Morbid Obesity: >40.0
measuring body fat
Measuring Body Fat

Skinfold Measurements

Home Body Fat Analyzers

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)

Hydrostatic (Underwater) Weighing

Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA)

The Bod Pod

evaluating fitness products and programs
Evaluating Fitness Products and Programs

Exercise Equipment

Athletic Shoes


Fitness Aids

Fitness Centers


How to Buy Athletic Shoes

Well-molded Achilles pad prevents irritation of Achilles tendon

Well-padded tongue prevents extensor

tendonitis and irritation of dorsum of foot

Laces not too long so they stay tied longer

Firm heel counter for hindfoot stability

Flared heel stability and beveled or rounded heel for

quick roll-off

Studded sole absorbs shock and provides traction in mud and snow

Soft, raised heel wedge to absorb impact at heel strike

Flexible midsole helps prevent Achilles tendon problems

High rounded toe box

(at least 1 1/2” in. high) prevents sublungual hematomas

(“black toes”)

sports nutrition how much water should i drink while exercising
Sports NutritionHow Much Water Should I Drink While Exercising?

24 Hours Before Exercise:

  • Consume a nutritionally balanced diet and drink adequate fluids.

2 Hours Before Exercise:

  • 17 ounces of fluid

During Exercise:

  • Start drinking early and in regular intervals.

Exercise Sessions Lasting

1+ hours:

  • Drink fluids with carbohydrates and electrolytes
thinking of temperature
Heat Cramps

Muscle cramps caused by profuse sweating and consequent loss of electrolytes.

Heat Syndromes

Heat Exhaustion

Heat Stroke

Coping with Cold


Less severe


More severe

Superficial vs. deep


Thinking of Temperature
avoiding injury
Avoiding Injury
  • Get proper instruction.
  • Make sure you have good equipment.
  • Always make sure that stretching and exercises are preventing, not causing, injuries.
  • Use reasonable protective measures.
  • For some sports, recruit a buddy.
  • Take each outing seriously.
  • Never combine alcohol or drugs with any sport.
shaping up
Shaping Up
  • Evaluate your readiness for change.
  • Consider your fitness goals.
  • Think through your personal preferences.
  • Schedule exercise into your daily routine.
  • Assemble your gear.
  • Start slowly.
  • Progress gradually.
  • Take stock.