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Session 1

Comprehends the complex chemistry of living organisms. ... Stillman, J. M. The story of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry; Dover: New York 1960, p. 160. ...

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Session 1

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  1. S0001 Preparation for College Chemistry Let's Talk Chemistry Luis Avila avila@chem.columbia.edu Room: Chandler 455 Phone #: (212)854-8587

  2. “Take white lead, one part, and any glass you choose, two parts, fuse together in a crucible and then pour the mixture. To this crystal add the urine of an ass and after forty days you will find emeralds” Stillman, J. M. The story of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry; Dover: New York 1960, p. 160. What is Chemistry? What Does a Chemist Do? • Studies the atomic composition and structural features of substances. • Investigates the variedinteractions among substances • Utilizes natural substances and creates artificial ones. • Comprehends the complex chemistry of living organisms. • Provides a molecular interpretation of health and disease.

  3. How Does She/He do it? • Main Divisions of Chemistry • Organic Chemistry • Inorganic Chemistry • Physical Chemistry • Analytical Chemistry • Industrial Chemistry • (Chemical Engineering • and Applied Chemistry) • Biochemistry Materials Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Forensic Chemistry

  4. What is Organic Chemistry? Largest area of specialization among the various fields of chemistry Synthetic Organic Chemistry • Pharmaceutical Chemistry • Polymer Chemistry • Dye and Textile Chemistry • Pulp and Paper Chemistry • Agricultural Chemistry • Formulation Chemistry (paint, food, petroleum products, adhesives, etc.) Physical Organic Chemistry • Correlates the physical and chemical properties of compounds with their structural features.

  5. We are interested in the multistep synthesis of natural products, as well as the development of new methodology, particularly to address problems of regio- or stereocontrol. At present (1999), we are working on problems suggested by structures such as those of germine, taxol, cardenolides and codeine Synthetic Organic Chemist: Professor Gilbert Stork

  6. 2-acetylnerifolin (class Cardenolide) Natural Product with Antitumor Activity Taxol Natural Product with Antitumor Activity

  7. Among our areas of current interest in the anticancer field are epothilone and eleutherobin. While structurally diverse, these two compounds seem to function by a taxol-like mechanism in their ability to inhibit microtubule disassembly. Several projects are addressed to goal systems with immunochemical implications. Here we are particularly concerned with the construction of a carbohydrate-based tumor antigen vaccine. Synthetic Organic Chemist / Bioorganic Chemist: Professor Samuel Danishefsky

  8. We deal with structural aspects of bioactive compounds and elucidation of their mode of action. In most cases this involves investigating the interaction of small molecules with their biopolymeric receptors. The recent dramatic advancement in isolation, purification and microspectroscopic methods has made it possible for chemists to become involved in such studies on a molecular structural basis Natural Products Chemist : Professor Koji Nakanishi

  9. We view the photon as a reagent for initiating photoreactions and as a product of the deactivation of electronically excited molecules. Our group is developing a novel field termed "supramolecular" photochemistry, or photochemistry beyond the conventional intellectual and scientific constraints implied by the term "molecule". In supramolecular processes non-covalent bonds between molecules play a role analogous to that of covalent bonds between atoms. Physical Organic Chemist / Photochemist Material Chemist: Professor Nicholas Turro

  10. What is Inorganic Chemistry? Deals with the properties of elements ranging from metals to non metals • Organometallic Chemistry • Bioinorganic Chemistry • Ceramics and Glass • Semiconductors

  11. We have a continuing interest in exploring unusual artifacts resulting from X-ray diffraction experiments (e.g. "bond stretch" isomerism) One of our interests is concerned with compounds with metal-ligand multiple bonds, which are species of considerable current interest in terms of both their bonding and reactivity. Organometallic Chemist / X-ray Spectroscopist: Professor Gerard Parkin

  12. In our major effort we are trying to prepare artificial enzymes that can imitate the function of natural enzymes. A related study involves the synthesis of mimics of antibodies or of biological receptor sites, constructing molecules that will bind to polypeptides with sequence selectivity in water, using mainly hydrophobic interactions. These could be very useful in modulating the activity of peptide hormones, for instance. Bio-organic Chemist : Professor Ronald Breslow

  13. What is Physical Chemistry? Measures, correlates, and explains the quantitative aspects of chemical processes • Theoretical Chemistry • Devoted to Quantum and Statistical Mechanics. • Theoretical chemists use computers to help them solve complicated • mathematical equations that simulate specific chemical processes. • Chemical Thermodynamics • Deals with the relationship between heat, work, temperature, • and energy of Chemical systems. • Chemical Kinetics • Seeks to measure and understand the rates of chemical • reactions.

  14. Physical Chemistry • Electrochemistry • Investigates the interrelationship between electric current and chemical change. • Photochemistry, Spectroscopy • Uses radiation energy to probe and induce change within matter. • Surface Chemistry • Examines the properties of chemical surfaces, using instruments that can provide a chemical profile of such surfaces.

  15. My research is concerned with structural and dynamic processes in condensed phase systems and biomacromolecular systems. Because the systems studied are often complex many-body systems, it is necessary to utilize the powerful analytical methods of statistical mechanics as well as state-of-the-art methods of computer simulation involving molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo techniques. Theoretical Chemist: Professor Bruce Berne

  16. My research is materials, surfaces and nanocrystals, especially in relation to optical and electronic properties. This work can include theoretical modeling, experimental chemical physics, and synthetic chemistry. We try to understand the evolution of solid state properties from molecular properties, and to create new materials with nanoscale structure by both kinetic and thermodynamic self-assembly methods. Materials Chemist: Professor Louis Brus

  17. Our research program involves the design, synthesis, and detailed physical investigation of novel molecular and nanoparticle materials which display unique self-organized hierarchical structures and specific optical, electronic, and/or magnetic properties. Emphasis is placed on materials with potential applications in light-emitting devices, optical memory devices, molecular level and single particle level switching devices, and chemosensory devices. Our research is necessarily interdisciplinary where students and post-doctoral researchers are exposed to modern aspects of inorganic, physical, and materials chemistry. Materials Chemist / Near Field Microscopist Professor David Adams

  18. Experimental Physical Chemist / Surface Chemist Professor George Flynn We investigate molecular collisions that lead either to chemical reaction or to the exchange of energy between molecules. In particular, we have developed the infrared diode laser absorption probe technique to investigate collisions between molecules. We also study the structure of molecules adsorbed on surfaces by using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM).

  19. What is Analytical Chemistry? QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS deals with the detection of elements or compounds (analytes) in different materials. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS refers to the measurement of the actual amounts of the analyte present in the material investigated. • Chemical and Biochemical Methods • Gravimetry • Titrimetric Analysis • Enzymic Analysis • Inmunochemical Analysis

  20. Analytical Chemistry • Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopic Methods • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) • Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) • Mass Spectrometry (MS) • Vibrational Spectroscopy (IR, RAMAN) • X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XPS) • Electronic Spectroscopy (UV, VIS, Luminiscence) • Atomic Spectroscopy (AA, ICP) • Rotational Spectroscopy (Microwave, FIR)

  21. Analytical Chemistry • Gas Chromatography (GC) • High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) • Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) • Ion Chromatography • Chromatographic Methods (Partition equilibrium)

  22. Analytical Chemistry • Thermal Methods • Thermogravimetry (TG) • Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) • Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) • Thermomechanic Analysis (TMA) • Electrochemical Methods • Electrogravimetry • Electrophoresis • Conductimetry,Potentiometry • Polarography • Voltammetry

  23. We study enzyme mechanisms using NMR. A variety of experiments allow us to probe structural details,dynamics or chemical details such as protonation states. In photosynthetic reaction centers, light energy is converted to chemical potential energy through long-range electron transfer events. A wealth of crystallographic, mutagenic, and spectroscopic work on these centers still leaves important mechanistic questions unanswered. Biophysical Chemist / NMR Spectroscopist: Professor Ann McDermott

  24. Our research interests center on the development of selection strategies for identifying enzymes from large pools of proteins. This research is interdisciplinary, bringing together the techniques of small-molecule synthesis, molecular and cellular biology, computer modeling, and mechanistic enzymology and structural biology. The need for efficient catalysts is fundamental. Biological catalysts drive cellular processes, and the chemical industry relies on catalysts for the synthesis of compounds ranging from pharmaceuticals to materials. Molecular Biologist / Organic Chemist: Professor Virginia Cornish

  25. H 1 He 2 Li 3 4 Be 5 B C 6 7 N 8 O 9 F Ne 10 11 Na Mg 12 Al 13 14 Si P 15 S 16 Cl 17 18 Ar K 19 Ca 20 21 Sc 22 Ti V 23 24 Cr Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 28 Ni 29 Cu Zn 30 31 Ga Ge 32 33 As Se 34 35 Br 36 Kr Rb 37 Sr 38 39 Y 40 Zr 41 Nb 42 Mo 43 Tc 44 Ru 45 Rh Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 49 In 50 Sn 51 Sb 52 Te I 53 Xe 54 55 Cs Ba 56 La 57 72 Hf Ta 73 74 W Re 75 76 Os Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 8l Pb 82 83 Bi 84 Po At 85 86 Rn 87 Fr 88 Ra 89 Ac 104 Rf 105 Ha Sg 106 107 Bh 108 Hs Mt 109 Ce 58 Pr 59 60 Nd Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 68 Lu 69 71 Dy 70 Ho Er 67 Tmi Yb 66 90 Th Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 95 Am Cm 96 97 Bk Es Fm Md No Lr Cf 99 102 101 100 103 98 The Tools of the Trade Periodic Table of the Elements

  26. Interesting Applications The KSC-ALS Breadboard Project • Humans take in oxygen, food and water, and expel carbon dioxide and organic waste. Plants utilize carbon dioxide, produce food, release oxygen, and purify water. Inedible plant material and human waste are degraded by microorganisms to recycle nutrients for plants in a process termed resource recovery.

  27. When humans establish permanent bases on the Lunar surface or travel to Space for exploration, they need to develop systems to: • produce food • purify their water supply and • create oxygen from the carbon dioxide they expel. Physico-chemical processes can perform the two latter tasks, but only biological processes can perform all three.

  28. A life support system that would perform these regenerative functions, whether strictly by biological means or by a combination of biological and physical-chemical methods, has been called a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). • Biological systems utilize plants and microorganisms to perform these life support tasks in a process termed bioregeneration.

  29. A CELSS is a tightly controlled system, using crops to perform life support functions, under the restrictions of minimizing volume, mass, energy, and labor.

  30. A career alternative for chemists, a multidisciplinary arena to prove the role of Chemistry as a "central science".

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