Class Mammalia
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Class Mammalia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Class Mammalia. External Structure & Locomotion. 1. Skin- important for A. protection from injury B. invasion of bacteria C. UV rays D. temperature regulation E. Sensory perception F. Excretion G. Water regulation. 2. Hair- keratinized strands of dead cells

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External Structure & Locomotion

1. Skin- important for

A. protection from injury

B. invasion of bacteria

C. UV rays

D. temperature regulation

E. Sensory perception

F. Excretion

G. Water regulation

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2. Hair- keratinized strands of dead cells

A. some it is reduced to a few bristles

B. 2 kinds make up the pelage or fur coat 1. Guard hair- long outer hairs for protection & coloration

2. Underhair- dense, soft, shorter hairs for insulation

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C. Stops growing when it reaches a certain length

D . Molting

1. all at once(most mammals)

2. gradually throughout life(humans)

E. Important for: 1. Camouflage 2. Sensory perception 3. Thermal regulation

F. Hair color determined by the amount of a pigment called melanin in the hair shaft

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  • - egg laying mammals

  • - Echidna (spiny anteater)

  • Duck-billed Platypus

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3. Claws- used for locomotion, offensive & defensive behavior

A. can be modified into: 1. Claws- for digging

2. Nails- for grasping (arboreal animals-primates)

3. Hooves- reduced digits for walking on hard ground, rocks

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4. Glands-variety of functions: behavior

A. sebaceous(oil) glands- lubricates & waterproofs the skin

B. Sudoriferous(sweat) gland- cools skin; releases excess salt, urea, & water

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C. Scent/musk glands- on face, feet, anus to show territoriality, sex, recognition

D. Mammary glands- secrete milk containing nutrients for young

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Bones & Teeth territoriality, sex, recognition

  • Secondary palate- separates the nasal & oral pathways so can breathe while chewing

  • 2. Are heterodonts- teeth are specialized for different function.

  • ( reptiles are homodonts-all teeth are the same shape)

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  • 3. Two sets of teeth: territoriality, sex, recognition

  • Deciduous teeth-lost very early; milk teeth

  • Permanent teeth- last set of teeth

Permanent teeth

Deciduous teeth

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4. Types of teeth: territoriality, sex, recognition

A. incisors- two front teeth; chisellike & used for gnawing or nipping

B. Canines- long, stout, &

conical; catching,

killing, & tearing prey

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C. Premolars- broad flat teeth; for chewing territoriality, sex, recognition

D. Molars- same as premolars

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5. territoriality, sex, recognition

A. Herbivores (deer, horses, rodents) have reduced canines, more prominent molars for grinding plant food

B. Carnivores(dogs, cats, coyotes) have enlarged canines for tearing, less dominant molars

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C. Omnivores-(humans) have equally dominant teeth territoriality, sex, recognition

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  • 6. Three types of horns: territoriality, sex, recognition

  • True horns- bone arises from skull; not branched; not shed; seen in both sexes(sheep & cattle)

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B. Antlers- covered with velvet that falls off before the breeding season; antlers are lost after the breeding season & a few months later regrow, more elaborate than before

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Nutrition & the Digestive System bone

  • Mammals digestive systems are specialized(like teeth) for a variety of needs

  • Ruminants- most herbivores

    • Eat plant material containing cellulose that is hard to digest

    • Have very large digestive tracts that aid in digestion of cellulose. (this is why these animals have very large bellies)

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C. Most have 4 stomach chambers filled with special bacteria that help break cellulose down

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D. Will regurgitate or “chew cud” to continue breaking down cellulose

E. Some will eat their fecal pellets (rabbits, elephants) to get more nutrients from the plants they eat

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Gas Exchange down cellulose

  • Have larger, more vascular lungs

  • Have a diaphragm- the muscle that separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities- to help in drawing in large amounts of air at a time

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  • Circulation down cellulose

  • Have a four chambered heart

  • Keeps oxygenated blood & deoxygenated blood separate

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  • Temperature Regulation down cellulose

  • Endotherms

  • Maintain warmth- A. hair B. fat deposits-blubber

  • Cool off- A. panting B. sweat glands

  • C. large ears to

  • dissipate heat(rabbits & elephants) D. nocturnal

Cutting blubber cubes from seal to test for contamination (bioaccumulation)

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  • Which is not a gland associated with mammals? down cellulose

    • Sebaceous c. Sudoriferous

    • Mammary d. Jacobson’s

  • Which characteristic do mammals and birds share?

    a. Feathers b. Dry scaly skin c. endotherms

  • Hair is important for

    • Temperature regulation c. As a sensory organ

    • Camouflage d. All of these

  • A ruminant

    • Has long digestive tract b. Is a carnivore

      c. Lacks hair

  • By looking at the teeth, what type of animal is this?

    a. Carnivore

    b. Herbivore

    c. omnivore

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JOURNAL down cellulose

  • You have discovered an unknown organism. What are three characteristics that would help you identify it as a mammal?



    • Signed grade printout

    • Solving a Mammal Mystery WKST

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  • Behavior down cellulose

  • Migration- move long distances to avoid drought or temperature extremes

  • Winter sleep- animals retreat to burrows where they become less active but relatively alert & easily aroused(bears, raccoons)

  • Hibernation-respiration, heart rate, metabolism all slow down considerably. Will store large amounts of fat to rely on in winter. ( moles, shrews, rodents, bats)

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  • 4. Pheromones- used to: down cellulose

    • Recognize members of same species

    • Attract mate

    • Establish territories

    • Recognize parents

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6. Vocalizations & tactile communications important to social animals like primates that groom each other

7. Territoriality- defend/protect certain area

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Nervous & Sensory System social animals like primates that groom each other

  • Larger brains compared to body size

  • Good sense of touch

  • Olfaction very important

  • Well developed sense of hearing

  • Vision is also important. Color vision not as well developed in most( scientists believe because ancestor were nocturnal). It is well developed in primates, squirrels and a few others

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Excretion social animals like primates that groom each other

  • kidney

  • Produce urea- liquid urine with some water- as a waste product.

  • Can afford to lose some water because of our better abilities to maintain homeostasis

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  • Reproduction & Development social animals like primates that groom each other

  • Females go through an estrus cycle where they are receptive to males and release eggs for fertilization

  • Reproduction usually occurs when climate is right and resources are available

  • Three types of estrus: A. monestrus- only one estrus/year- pandas, bears, sea lions

    • B. Diestrus- 2 estrus/ year- domestic dogs

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C. polyestrus- many estrus/year- humans social animals like primates that groom each other

4. Modes of development:

A. monotremes- lay eggs- platypus & echidna

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B. marsupials- short gestation inside mother(8-40 days); when born must crawl to marsupium (pouch) to complete development. Will attach to nipple in pouch for additional 60-270 days

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C. Eutherian mammals- longer gestation periods (20-19 months) Offspring are nourished by the placenta.

***The longer the gestation period, the longer the offspring can take to develop, the more complex structures and/or functions will be.

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  • Orders of Mammals months) Offspring are nourished by the placenta.

  • Order Insectivora- small, primitive mammals; 3rd largest order.

  • Ex; hedgehogs, moles, shrew

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2. Order Chiroptera- bones of arms & hands are elongate & slender; have flight membranes; most insectivores, some fruit eater, blood or fish feeders

Ex- bats

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3. Order Primates- increased agility in arboreal(tree-dwelling) habitats; omnivores, unspecialized teeth, grasping digits, enlarged eyes & cerebral hemispheres

Ex; lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, great apes, humans

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4. Order Edentata- incisors & canines absent; hind foot is four toes, forefoot with 2/3 prominent toes with large claws; limbs for climbing or digging

Ex- anteaters, sloths, armadillos

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5. Order Lagomorpha- two pairs of upper incisors, one pair of lower incisors. Incisors are always growing & worn down by feeding on vegetation.

Ex- rabbits

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6. Order Rodentia- largest mammals order; upper & lower jaws have single pair of always growing incisors.

Ex- squirrels, chipmunks, rats, mice, beavers, porcupines

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7. Order Cetacea- streamlined, nearly hairless & insulated by blubber; forelimbs modified into flippers, hindlimbs reduced; nostrils on top of head

Ex- toothed whale, porpoises, baleen whales

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8. Order Carnivora- predatory mammals; well developed sense of smell; canines are well developed

Ex- dogs, cats, bears, raccoons, sea lions, seals, walruses, otters

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9. Order Proboscidea- long, muscular trunk with 1-2 finger like projections Ex- African 7 Indian elephants

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10. Order Sirenia- large, aquatic herbivores; nearly hairless with thick, wrinkled skin; forelimb is flipperlike & hindlimb is vestigial Ex- manatee, dugong

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11. Order Perissodactyla- skull usually elongate; large molars/premolars, odd toed ungulates (hoofed animals); primarily grazers. Ex- horses, rhinoceroses, zebras, tapirs

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12. Order Artiodactyla- even toes hoofed animals; grazing animals Ex- pigs, hippopotamuses, camels, deer, sheep, giraffe, cattle

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Monotremata animals

  • -Egg laying mammals

  • - Echidna (Spiny Anteater)

  • - Duckbilled Platypus

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Marsupialia animals

  • - pouched mammals

  • -

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Demoptera animals

  • Flying Lemurs

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Hyracoidae animals

  • Hyrax

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Pholidata animals

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Pinnipedia animals

  • Seals & Walruses

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Tubulidentata animals

  • Aardvark