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Class Mammalia. Add to online Mammal lecture Reference back to A&P notes beginning of semester. Prototheria - Monotremes. 3 extant genera all live in the Australia-New Zealand region: Duck-billed platypus ( Ornithorhynchus) Echidna ( Tachyglossus )

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class mammalia

Class Mammalia

Add to online Mammal lecture

Reference back to A&P notes beginning of semester

prototheria monotremes
Prototheria - Monotremes
  • 3 extant genera
  • all live in the Australia-New Zealand region:
    • Duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus)
    • Echidna (Tachyglossus)
    • Long-beaked echidna or spiny anteater (Zaglossus )
  • not considered ancestral to therians
    • specialized surviving sidebranch
monotremes
Monotremes
  • lay leathery eggs (1 or 2) in underground nests
  • cloaca
  • toothless as adults
  • skeletal differences
    • have cervical ribs
    • "reptilian" pelvic girdle
    • lack a bony housing for the ear
monotremes5
Monotremes
  • young born very altrical
  • Parental care
    • platypus - young get milk by sucking/licking the belly hair
    • echidna – ventral pouch for incubating and 2 suckling regions.
subclass theria infraclass metatheria
Subclass Theria Infraclass Metatheria
  • Old system - Order Marsupialia
  • Current – several orders
subclass theria infraclass metatheria7
Subclass Theria Infraclass Metatheria
  • Numerous during Cretaceous (end of Mesozoic)
    • Southern land masses were united
  • During Cenozoic
    • southern masses split, joined northern
    • Couldn’t compete with placentals.
subclass theria infraclass metatheria8
Subclass Theria Infraclass Metatheria
  • young born tiny, very immature (altricial)
  • gestation short
    • time in marsupium > uterus
subclass theria infraclass metatheria9
Subclass Theria Infraclass Metatheria
  • Skeletal differences from eutherians
    • shape of nasal bone
    • ancestral dental formulas
    • presence of epipubic bones
  • poor thermoregulators
subclass theria infraclass eutheria
Subclass Theria Infraclass Eutheria
  • Known from late Cretaceous
  • 18 extant orders
order xenarthra edentata
Order Xenarthra (Edentata)
  • most primitive
    • sloths, anteaters and armadillos (protective armor)
    • Strong claws
    • adults few to 0 teeth (molars lack enamel)
order pholidota
Order Pholidota
  • pangolins or scaly anteaters; 7 species
    • tropical Africa/Asia
    • Scaly, epidermal layer
      • curl up for protection
order pholidota13
Order Pholidota
  • pangolins or scaly anteaters; 7 species
    • tropical Africa/Asia
    • Scaly, epidermal layer
      • curl up for protection
    • eats ants and termites
    • Long tongue, strong digging feet
    • lack teeth
edentata clade
“Edentata clade”
  • Order Xenarthra (Edentata)
    • Armadillo and anteater
  • Order Pholidota – spiny anteater
  • Similarities considered convergent evolution
stand alone groups
Stand alone groups
  • Insectivora
  • Carnivora
primates
Primates
  • hands that grasp
    • often opposable thumb (pollex) or big toe (hallux):
  • well-developed sense of touch
  • Most have flat finger/toenails
primates17
Primates
  • Enlarged brain
  • Stereoscopic color-vision
  • Many omnivorous
  • Most are social
primates18
Primates
  • 2 subdivisions
primates19
Primates
  • 2 subdivisions
  • prosimians or lower primates
    • mostly small, nocturnal
    • Most rely on smell more than sight or sound
    • Lemurs, tarsiers ….
primates20
Primates
  • The Anthropoids or higher primates
    • Most larger, diurnal.
    • Apes
      • no tails
      • Larger brain
      • Larger body
      • More upright
      • Fewer offspring, slower to mature
      • Sight more than smell
    • Monkeys
      • nearly all have tails
primates21
Primates
  • New World: all monkeys.
    • Fairly small and exclusively tree dwelling.
    • Marmosets and tamarins,
    • squirrel, spider, woolly, and howler monkeys,
  • Old World: comprise monkeys, apes and humans.
    • Bigger and spend more time on the ground.
    • Macaques, Baboons, Mandrills and Drills, Geladas, Mangabeys, Guenons, Leaf-eating monkeys (Langurs, leaf monkeys, colobus, proboscis) (Cercopithecidae)
primates22
Primates
  • apes:
    • Hominidae:
      • gorillas
      • chimpanzees and bonobos (aka pygmy chimps),
      • Humans
    • Pongidae: orangutan
    • Hylobatidae: gibbons and siamang
chiroptera
Chiroptera
  • Bats – only flying mammal
  • Wings – membrane between fingers
    • Different from birds and pterosaurs
chiroptera24
Chiroptera
  • Bats – only flying mammal
  • Wings – membrane between fingers
    • Different from birds and pterosaurs
  • Nocturnal, often forest dweller
    • Eyesight poor
    • Well-developed echolocation
chiroptera25
Chiroptera
  • Bats – only flying mammal
  • Wings – membrane between fingers
    • Different from birds and pterosaurs
  • Nocturnal, often forest dweller
    • Eyesight poor
    • Well-developed echolocation
  • Related to primates?
dermoptera
Dermoptera
  • flying lemurs or colugos (2 species)
    • Squirrel size
  • Gliders
    • Skin stretched from neck,

to forelimbs to backfeet

Related to Chiroptera?

1 clade
1 clade
  • Primates
  • Dermoptera (flying lemur)
  • Tree shrews
  • Chiroptera
  • ?
ungulata
Ungulata
  • Order ARTIODACTYLA (even-toed ungulates eg. pigs, deer & cattle)
  • Order CETACEA (whales and dolphins)
  • Order PROBOSCIDEA (elephants)
  • Order SIRENIA (sea-cows)
  • Order HYRACOIDEA (hyraxes)
  • Order PERISSODACTYLA (odd-toed ungulates eg. horses, tapirs and rhinos)
  • Order TUBULIDENTATA (the aardvark)
cetartiodactyla
“Cetartiodactyla “
  • Artiodactylids and cetaceans closely related!
    • Cetaceans evolved from artiodactylids
cetartiodactyla30
Cetartiodactyla
  • Artiodactylids and cetaceans closely related!
    • Cetaceans evolved from artiodactylids
    • Closely related to hippos, not pigs
    • Hippos grouped w/ pigs
artiodactyla
Artiodactyla
  • 2 or 4-toed
  • line of symmetry passes between digits 3 & 4
  • Ankle structure differs from other ungulates (greater flexibility)
  • pre-molars different from molars
artiodactyla32
Artiodactyla
  • Suborder Suina:
    • pigs, peccaries & hippopotami:
    • most primitive, regrouped
  • Suborder Tylopoda:
    • camels & llamas
  • Suborder Ruminantia:
    • cattle, antelopes, deer and giraffes: advanced artiodactyls.
cetacea
Cetacea
  • Suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales)
    • Dolphins, killer whales, sperm whale
  • Suborder Mysticeti (the baleen) whales.
    • Blue whale, right whales, humpback
slide34
Proboscidea
    • elephants - 2 genera, 2 species
    • Asian African

Tusks normally larger,

both males & females have

slide36
Large, communal, herbivores
  • Eyes
    • Small
    • neck not very flexible
slide37
Smell
    • Important
    • touch with trunk,
    • move to Jacobson’s organ (roof of mouth)
slide38
Teeth
    • Incisors = tusk
    • Molars – replaced from rear
slide39
Teeth
    • Incisors = tusk
    • Molars – replaced from rear
  • Hearing and ears
    • Low frequency communication
    • Ears – thermoregulation
slide40
Trunk – very sensitive (tactile)
    • Respiration (snorkel for aquatic ancestor?)
    • Hose for water
slide41
Trunk – very sensitive (tactile)
    • Respiration (snorkel for aquatic ancestor?)
    • Hose for water
    • Chemosensory & tactile
slide42
Trunk – very sensitive (tactile)
    • Respiration (snorkel for aquatic ancestor?)
    • Hose for water
    • Chemosensory & tactile
    • Picking up objects
    • Communication – caress, threat displays, …
sirenia
Sirenia
  • sea cows, dugongs, manatees (2 genera, 5 species)
  • Large, slow moving herbivores
  • Usually solitary
hyracoidea
Hyracoidea
  • Hyraxes (3 genera, 11 species)
    • Africa
    • rabbit size, rodent-like animals
hyracoidea47
Hyracoidea
  • Hyraxes (3 genera, 11 species)
    • Africa
    • rabbit size, rodent-like animals
    • 4 toes in front, 3 in rear, hoof-like nails
    • Rubbery soles – grip rock
hyracoidea48
Hyracoidea
  • Hyraxes (3 genera, 11 species)
    • Africa
    • rabbit size, rodent-like animals
    • 4 toes in front, 3 in rear, hoof-like nails
    • Rubbery soles – grip rock
  • Related to elephants and

sirens

perissodactyla
Perissodactyla
  • line of symmetry down third digit
  • a full set of incisors
  • greatly molarized pre-molars
perissodactyla50
Perissodactyla
  • line of symmetry down third digit
  • a full set of incisors
  • greatly molarized pre-molars
  • 2 lineages – horses vs. tapirs & rhinos
  • Replaced by artiodactylids
tubulidentata
Tubulidentata
  • Aardvarks – 1 species
    • Nocturnal, solitary, burrower
    • Poor eyesight,
    • Hearing and smell developed
    • Specialize in termites
      • Long sticky tongue
      • Strong claws and forelimbs
        • digging