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Class Mammalia. Add to online Mammal lecture Reference back to A&P notes beginning of semester. Prototheria - Monotremes. 3 extant genera all live in the Australia-New Zealand region: Duck-billed platypus ( Ornithorhynchus) Echidna ( Tachyglossus )

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Class mammalia l.jpg

Class Mammalia

Add to online Mammal lecture

Reference back to A&P notes beginning of semester


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Prototheria - Monotremes

  • 3 extant genera

  • all live in the Australia-New Zealand region:

    • Duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus)

    • Echidna (Tachyglossus)

    • Long-beaked echidna or spiny anteater (Zaglossus )

  • not considered ancestral to therians

    • specialized surviving sidebranch


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Monotremes

  • lay leathery eggs (1 or 2) in underground nests

  • cloaca

  • toothless as adults

  • skeletal differences

    • have cervical ribs

    • "reptilian" pelvic girdle

    • lack a bony housing for the ear


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Monotremes

  • young born very altrical

  • Parental care

    • platypus - young get milk by sucking/licking the belly hair

    • echidna – ventral pouch for incubating and 2 suckling regions.


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Subclass Theria Infraclass Metatheria

  • Old system - Order Marsupialia

  • Current – several orders


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Subclass Theria Infraclass Metatheria

  • Numerous during Cretaceous (end of Mesozoic)

    • Southern land masses were united

  • During Cenozoic

    • southern masses split, joined northern

    • Couldn’t compete with placentals.


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Subclass Theria Infraclass Metatheria

  • young born tiny, very immature (altricial)

  • gestation short

    • time in marsupium > uterus


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Subclass Theria Infraclass Metatheria

  • Skeletal differences from eutherians

    • shape of nasal bone

    • ancestral dental formulas

    • presence of epipubic bones

  • poor thermoregulators


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Subclass Theria Infraclass Eutheria

  • Known from late Cretaceous

  • 18 extant orders


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Order Xenarthra (Edentata)

  • most primitive

    • sloths, anteaters and armadillos (protective armor)

    • Strong claws

    • adults few to 0 teeth (molars lack enamel)


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Order Pholidota

  • pangolins or scaly anteaters; 7 species

    • tropical Africa/Asia

    • Scaly, epidermal layer

      • curl up for protection


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Order Pholidota

  • pangolins or scaly anteaters; 7 species

    • tropical Africa/Asia

    • Scaly, epidermal layer

      • curl up for protection

    • eats ants and termites

    • Long tongue, strong digging feet

    • lack teeth


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“Edentata clade”

  • Order Xenarthra (Edentata)

    • Armadillo and anteater

  • Order Pholidota – spiny anteater

  • Similarities considered convergent evolution


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Stand alone groups

  • Insectivora

  • Carnivora


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Primates

  • hands that grasp

    • often opposable thumb (pollex) or big toe (hallux):

  • well-developed sense of touch

  • Most have flat finger/toenails


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Primates

  • Enlarged brain

  • Stereoscopic color-vision

  • Many omnivorous

  • Most are social


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Primates

  • 2 subdivisions


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Primates

  • 2 subdivisions

  • prosimians or lower primates

    • mostly small, nocturnal

    • Most rely on smell more than sight or sound

    • Lemurs, tarsiers ….


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Primates

  • The Anthropoids or higher primates

    • Most larger, diurnal.

    • Apes

      • no tails

      • Larger brain

      • Larger body

      • More upright

      • Fewer offspring, slower to mature

      • Sight more than smell

    • Monkeys

      • nearly all have tails


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Primates

  • New World: all monkeys.

    • Fairly small and exclusively tree dwelling.

    • Marmosets and tamarins,

    • squirrel, spider, woolly, and howler monkeys,

  • Old World: comprise monkeys, apes and humans.

    • Bigger and spend more time on the ground.

    • Macaques, Baboons, Mandrills and Drills, Geladas, Mangabeys, Guenons, Leaf-eating monkeys (Langurs, leaf monkeys, colobus, proboscis) (Cercopithecidae)


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Primates

  • apes:

    • Hominidae:

      • gorillas

      • chimpanzees and bonobos (aka pygmy chimps),

      • Humans

    • Pongidae: orangutan

    • Hylobatidae: gibbons and siamang


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Chiroptera

  • Bats – only flying mammal

  • Wings – membrane between fingers

    • Different from birds and pterosaurs


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Chiroptera

  • Bats – only flying mammal

  • Wings – membrane between fingers

    • Different from birds and pterosaurs

  • Nocturnal, often forest dweller

    • Eyesight poor

    • Well-developed echolocation


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Chiroptera

  • Bats – only flying mammal

  • Wings – membrane between fingers

    • Different from birds and pterosaurs

  • Nocturnal, often forest dweller

    • Eyesight poor

    • Well-developed echolocation

  • Related to primates?


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Dermoptera

  • flying lemurs or colugos (2 species)

    • Squirrel size

  • Gliders

    • Skin stretched from neck,

      to forelimbs to backfeet

      Related to Chiroptera?


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1 clade

  • Primates

  • Dermoptera (flying lemur)

  • Tree shrews

  • Chiroptera

  • ?


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Ungulata

  • Order ARTIODACTYLA (even-toed ungulates eg. pigs, deer & cattle)

  • Order CETACEA (whales and dolphins)

  • Order PROBOSCIDEA (elephants)

  • Order SIRENIA (sea-cows)

  • Order HYRACOIDEA (hyraxes)

  • Order PERISSODACTYLA (odd-toed ungulates eg. horses, tapirs and rhinos)

  • Order TUBULIDENTATA (the aardvark)


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“Cetartiodactyla “

  • Artiodactylids and cetaceans closely related!

    • Cetaceans evolved from artiodactylids


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Cetartiodactyla

  • Artiodactylids and cetaceans closely related!

    • Cetaceans evolved from artiodactylids

    • Closely related to hippos, not pigs

    • Hippos grouped w/ pigs


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Artiodactyla

  • 2 or 4-toed

  • line of symmetry passes between digits 3 & 4

  • Ankle structure differs from other ungulates (greater flexibility)

  • pre-molars different from molars


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Artiodactyla

  • Suborder Suina:

    • pigs, peccaries & hippopotami:

    • most primitive, regrouped

  • Suborder Tylopoda:

    • camels & llamas

  • Suborder Ruminantia:

    • cattle, antelopes, deer and giraffes: advanced artiodactyls.


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Cetacea

  • Suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales)

    • Dolphins, killer whales, sperm whale

  • Suborder Mysticeti (the baleen) whales.

    • Blue whale, right whales, humpback


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Tusks normally larger,

both males & females have



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  • Smell

    • Important

    • touch with trunk,

    • move to Jacobson’s organ (roof of mouth)


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  • Teeth

    • Incisors = tusk

    • Molars – replaced from rear


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  • Teeth

    • Incisors = tusk

    • Molars – replaced from rear

  • Hearing and ears

    • Low frequency communication

    • Ears – thermoregulation


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  • Trunk – very sensitive (tactile)

    • Respiration (snorkel for aquatic ancestor?)

    • Hose for water

    • Chemosensory & tactile

    • Picking up objects

    • Communication – caress, threat displays, …




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Sirenia

  • sea cows, dugongs, manatees (2 genera, 5 species)

  • Large, slow moving herbivores

  • Usually solitary


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Hyracoidea

  • Hyraxes (3 genera, 11 species)

    • Africa

    • rabbit size, rodent-like animals


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Hyracoidea

  • Hyraxes (3 genera, 11 species)

    • Africa

    • rabbit size, rodent-like animals

    • 4 toes in front, 3 in rear, hoof-like nails

    • Rubbery soles – grip rock


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Hyracoidea

  • Hyraxes (3 genera, 11 species)

    • Africa

    • rabbit size, rodent-like animals

    • 4 toes in front, 3 in rear, hoof-like nails

    • Rubbery soles – grip rock

  • Related to elephants and

    sirens


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Perissodactyla

  • line of symmetry down third digit

  • a full set of incisors

  • greatly molarized pre-molars


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Perissodactyla

  • line of symmetry down third digit

  • a full set of incisors

  • greatly molarized pre-molars

  • 2 lineages – horses vs. tapirs & rhinos

  • Replaced by artiodactylids


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Tubulidentata

  • Aardvarks – 1 species

    • Nocturnal, solitary, burrower

    • Poor eyesight,

    • Hearing and smell developed

    • Specialize in termites

      • Long sticky tongue

      • Strong claws and forelimbs

        • digging


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