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PART 3: MOTOR STRATEGIES #11: MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS I. exam I motor strategies mate calling in crickets song production by  s song recognition by  s sender-receiver matching summary. SENSORY INPUT MOTOR OUTPUT. VISION. CENTRAL INTEGRATION. COURT.

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slide1
PART 3: MOTOR STRATEGIES

#11: MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS I

  • exam I
  • motor strategies
  • mate calling in crickets
    • song production by s
    • song recognition by s
    • sender-receiver matching
    • summary
slide2
SENSORY INPUT MOTOR OUTPUT

VISION

CENTRAL

INTEGRATION

COURT

OLFACTION

FORAGE

GUSTATION

ATTACK

AUDITION

ESCAPE

MOTIVATION

FREEZE

MOTOR STRATEGIES

slide3
SENSORY INPUT MOTOR OUTPUT

VISION

CENTRAL

INTEGRATION

COURT

OLFACTION

FORAGE

GUSTATION

ATTACK

AUDITION

ESCAPE

MOTIVATION

FREEZE

MOTOR STRATEGIES

slide4
SENSORY INPUT MOTOR OUTPUT

VISION

CENTRAL

INTEGRATION

COURT

OLFACTION

FORAGE

GUSTATION

ATTACK

AUDITION

ESCAPE

MOTIVATION

FREEZE

MOTOR STRATEGIES

slide5
MOTOR STRATEGIES
  • complex activity, requires
    • eg, coordinated operation of limbs
    • often rapid & appropriate responses to environmental signals
    • sensory-motor interface... behavior itself changes requirements of subsequent behavior
slide6
MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS
  • song production by s only...
  • innate recognition by s...
  • innate attraction by s
  • s navigate s... courtship
  • stereotypic song
  • many species... many different songs
slide7
MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS
  • ~ 2600 modern cricket species
  • most work on 3 related temperate latitude families:
    • bush crickets (Tettigoniidae)
    • field crickets (Gryllidae)
    • mole crickets (Gryllotalpidae)
  • most nocturnal
  • high predation... many predators, avoid by
    • hiding, freezing, burrowing, fleeing, camouflage
    • short calls ~ ventriloquism... hard to locate
slide8
MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS
  • song production in s by scraping wings together
  • several types of song
    • calling song
    • courtship song
    • aggressive song
slide9
MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS
  • song production in s by scraping wings together
  • several types of song
    • calling song
      •  response  = positive phonotaxis
      • call & remain stationary... attract single 
      • call & move... attract many s
      • amplify & direct call using hollow trees, burrows
    • courtship song
    • aggressive song
slide10
MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS
  • song production in s by scraping wings together
  • several types of song
    • calling song
    • courtship song
      • 1 of many signals (olfactory, visual, tactile)
    • aggressive song
slide11
MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS
  • song production in s by scraping wings together
  • several types of song
    • calling song
    • courtship song
    • aggressive song
      • establish territory
      • threaten impending aggression
slide12
MATE CALLING IN CRICKETS
  • several types of song
    • 1st…how NOT to study cricket songs…
    • calling song…
    • courtship song
    • aggressive song…
      • establish territory
      • threaten impending aggression
slide13
SONG PRODUCTION BY s
  • calling by wing scissor motion = stridulation
  • file & scraper on wings
  • sound ~ comb
  • chirps & syllables
  • sonogram... amplify...
slide14
SONG PRODUCTION BY s
  •  oscillogram
    • cycles
      • carrier frequency
      • 5 kHz
      • 1 scraper tooth
    • pulses
      • = syllables
      • 1 stridulation
    • chirps & trills
    • sequences
slide15
HEAD

SONG PRODUCTION BY s

  • cricket CNS
    • chain of ganglia = functional aggregates of neurons
    • linked by paired connectives
    • brain (3 fused)
      • sensory input
    • subeosphageal ganglion
    • thoracic ganglia (3)
    • abdominal ganglia (?)
slide16
SONG PRODUCTIONCIRCUITRY
  • meso- & metathoracic ganglia
  • motor neurons innervate
    • wing elevator muscles
    • wing depressor muscles
slide17
SONG PRODUCTIONCIRCUITRY
  • meso- & metathoracic ganglia
  • motor neurons innervate
    • wing elevator muscles
    • wing depressor muscles
  • observe a coordinated

sequence of events…

  • record from
    • motoneuron
    • muscle... EMG
      • electromyogram
slide18
SONG PRODUCTIONCIRCUITRY
  • correlate with
    • tegmen movement
    • muscle contraction
    • sound

... closing only

  • note timing of events
    • oscillating pattern
    • reciprocal output to antagonistic muscles
    • typical rhythmic motor activity... eg ,walking
slide19
SONG PRODUCTIONCIRCUITRY
  • correlate
    • calls (A)
  • interneuron

spikes

  • motoneuron

spikes

  • activity (B)
  • inhibition (C)
  • thoracic ganglia contain central pattern generator
slide20
TRIGGERING A SONG
  • central pattern generator (CPG)  call “machinery”
  • brain  call “decision”... from 3 experiments:
    • focal stimulation in head
      •  call & courtship songs
    • stimulate cervical connective (in “neck”)
      •  call & courtship songs
    • cut off head... stimulate individual neurons in cervical connective...
      •  call, courtship & aggression
      • single neurons encode each type of trigger
slide21
TRIGGERING A SONG
  • central pattern generator (CPG)  call “machinery”
  • brain  call “decision”
    • signals not ~ timing

of calls, only onset

slide22
TRIGGERING A SONG
  • brain / cervical connective stimulation shows that...
    • behavior onset but not pattern timing ~ stimulation
      • descending signals need patterning from CPG
    • stimulus freq. ~ rate of chirping
      • only rate encoded by brain
    • stimulus freq. or strength   transition from call  courtship or aggression
      • weakest trigger  call
slide23
TRIGGERING A SONG
  • brain / cervical connective stimulation shows that...
    • duration of brain stimulus ~ duration of call
      • constant brain stimulus required for call
    • some stimulation  call suppression... stimulus off  resumed calling more intense, often  courtship, postinhibitory rebound
      • ~ song  courtship in nature
slide24
SONG RECOGNITION BY s
  •  song &  response studied for > 200 yrs
  • how do s
    • recognize song ?
    • navigate s

... phonotaxis ?

  • can test for hrs
    • distance constant
    • never “”
  • many versions of device... different questions
slide25
SONG RECOGNITION BY s
  •  walks toward artificial call
    • zigzag pattern
    • oscillations 60° ~ direct line to source
slide26
SONG RECOGNITION BY s
  • what song features attract s ?
  • computer-constructed songs played s
  • varied components
    • syllable rate
    • syllable duration
    • chirp rate
    • # syllables / chirp
    • duty cycle / chirp
slide27
SONG RECOGNITION BY s
  • what song features attract s ?
  • computer-constructed songs played s
  • varied components
    • syllable rate
      • 30 / s
    • others not critical
slide28
ears on forelegs
  • associated with trachea

SONG RECOGNITION & LOCALIZATION

  • how does the 
    • first recognize the song ?
    • localize the song ?
  • 2 tympanic membranes
  • ~ 60 auditory receptor cells
  • auditory neurons 
  • auditory nerve CNS

(prothoracic ganglion)

slide29
SONG RECOGNITION & LOCALIZATION
  • tracheal tubes = insect “lungs”
  • connect tympanum  outside via spiracles
  • sound via 2 routes
    • direct
    • indirect
  • distance  ½ wave
    • pull / push
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