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Chapter Ten 15-3a Perceptual Process Model of Communication Model is based on notion that people create meaning in their own minds. Elements of model include: Sender . Person, group, or organization that communicate with a receiver.

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perceptual process model of communication

15-3a

Perceptual Process Model of Communication

Model is based on notion that people create meaning in their own minds. Elements of model include:

  • Sender. Person, group, or organization that communicate with a receiver.
  • Encoding. Sender translates thoughts into a code or language that can be understood by others.
  • The Message. The output of encoding.
  • Selecting a Medium. Method used to communicate. All media have advantages and disadvantages.
perceptual process model of communication continued

15-3b

Perceptual Process Model of Communication(continued)
  • Decoding. Receiver converts a message into a form that can be interpreted.
  • Creating Meaning. Receivers interpret message by using components of social information processing.
  • Feedback. Receivers response to a message.
  • Noise. Anything that interferes with the transmission and understanding of a message.
a contingency model for selecting communication media

15-5Figure 15-4

A Contingency Model for Selecting Communication Media

High

Overload zone

(medium provides

more information

than necessary)

Face-to-face

Telephone

Personal

written

Zone of effective communication

Richness of Communication Medium

Formal

written

Oversimplification zone

(medium does not

provide necessary

information)

Formal

numeric

Low

Low

High

Complexity of Problem/Situation

communication styles

15-7a

Table 15-1a

Communication Styles

Communication Nonverbal VerbalStyle Description Behavior Pattern Behavior Pattern

Assertive Pushing hard Good eye contact Direct and without Comfortable but unambiguous attacking; firm posture language permits others Strong, steady, No attributions or to influence and audible voice evaluations of outcome; Facial other’s behavior expressive and expressions Use of “I” self-enhancing matched to statements and without message cooperative “we” intruding on Appropriately statements others serious tone Selective interruptions to ensure under- standing

communication styles continued

15-7b

Table 15-1b

Communication Styles (continued)

Communication Nonverbal VerbalStyle Description Behavior Pattern Behavior Pattern

Aggressive Taking advantage Glaring eye Swear words and of others; contact abusive language expressive and Moving or Attributions and self-enhancing at leaning too close evaluations of other’s expense Threatening other’s behavior gestures (pointed Sexist or racist finger; clenched terms fist) Explicit threats or Loud voice put-downs Frequent interruptions

communication styles continued7

15-7c

Table 15-1c

Communication Styles (continued)

Communication Nonverbal VerbalStyle Description Behavior Pattern Behavior Pattern

Nonassertive Encouraging Little eye contact Qualifiers others to take Downward (“maybe”; “kind advantage of glances of”) us; inhibited; Slumped posture Fillers (“uh,” self-denying Constantly “you know,” shifting weight “well”) Wringing hands Negaters (“It’s Weak or whiny not really that voice important”; “I’m not sure”)

tips for improving nonverbal communication skills

15-8

Tips for Improving Nonverbal Communication Skills
  • Maintain eye contact
  • Occasionally nod your head in agreement
  • Smile and show animation
  • Lean toward the speaker
  • Speak at a moderate rate
  • Use an assuring tone
listening styles

15-10a

Listening Styles
  • Results-style listeners are interested in hearing the bottom line or final conclusion of a message before asking questions. They are:- direct- action oriented- focused on the present- problem solvers- interested in clearly stated conclusions
  • Reasons-style listeners are interested in hearing the rationale behind a message. They are:- concerned with whether or not a solution is practical and reasonable- prone to weigh and balance all information- likely to argue, out loud or internally- intolerant of communications that are disorganized- interested in knowing “why” a sender believes in whatever he or she is communicating
listening styles continued

15-10b

Listening Styles (continued)
  • Process-style listeners like to discuss issues in detail and prefer to receive background information prior to discussing an issue. They are:- people oriented- interested in all the background or supporting information associated with an issue- very interested in obtaining high quality solutions- future oriented- have ongoing conversations- indirect- concerned with “how” something will be accomplished and in identifying the benefits of proposed solutions
communication differences between women and men

15-11aTable 15-3a

Communication Differences between Women and Men

LinguisticCharacteristic

Men

Women

TakingCredit

Greater use of “I” statements(e.g., “I did this” and “I didthat”); more likely to boastabout their achievements

Greater use of “We” statements (e.g., “We did this” and “We did that”); less likely to boast about their achievements

DisplayingConfidence

Less likely to indicate thatthey are uncertain about anissue

More likely to indicate a lackof uncertainty about anissue

communication differences between women and men continued

15-11bTable 15-3b

Communication Differences between Women and Men (continued)

LinguisticCharacteristic

Men

Women

Askingquestions

Less likely to ask questions(e.g., asking for directions)

More likely to ask questions

ConversationRituals

Avoid making apologiesbecause it puts them in aone-down position

More frequently say “I’msorry”

communication differences between women and men continued13

15-11cTable 15-3c

Communication Differences between Women and Men (continued)

LinguisticCharacteristic

Men

Women

Givingfeedback

More direct and blunt

More tactful; tend totemper criticism with praise

Giving

compliments

Stingy with praise

Pay more complimentsthan men

Indirectness

Indirect when it comes toadmitting fault or when theydon’t know something

Indirect when telling otherswhat to do

hierarchical communication

15-12

Hierarchical Communication
  • Managers provide downward communication about- job instructions- job rationale- organizational procedures and practices- feedback about performance- indoctrination of goals
  • Employees provide upward communication about- themselves- co-workers- organizational practices and policies- what needs to be done and how to do it
  • Timely and accurate hierarchical communication promotes individual and organizational success
the grapevine

15-13

The Grapevine

The Grapevine: represents the unofficial communication system of the informal organization.

  • The grapevine is- characterized most frequently as a cluster pattern in which one individual passes along information to other people, who in turn communicate the information to selected others- faster than formal channels- about 75 percent accurate- used when people are insecure and faced with organizational change- used by employees to acquire the majority of their on-the-job information
key terms associated with information technology

15-15a

Key Terms Associated with Information Technology

Organizations are increasingly using information technology to improve productivity and customer satisfaction.

  • Internet: a global network of computer networks
  • Intranet: an organization’s private internet that uses firewalls to block outside internet users from accessing confidential information
  • Extranet: an extended intranet that connects internal employees with customers, suppliers, and other strategic partners
  • Electronic Mail: uses the internet/intranet to send computer-generated text and documents
  • Video Conferencing: uses video and audio links to connect people at different locations
barriers to effective communication

15-16

Barriers to Effective Communication
  • Process Barriers: involve all components of the perceptual model of communication
  • Personal Barriers: involve components of an individual’s communication competence and interpersonal dynamics between people communicating
  • Physical Barriers: pertain to the physical distance between people communicating
  • Semantic Barriers: relate to the different understanding and interpretations of the words we use to communicate

For class discussion: Which of the barriers to effective communication is the most difficult to deal with? Explain.