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Essential introduction to computers – Part 1

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Essential introduction to computers – Part 1. Outline. Computers and computer literacy What is a computer? The information processing cycle Data versus information Components of a computer Input devices The central processing unit The main memory Output devices

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Presentation Transcript
slide2
Outline
  • Computers and computer literacy
  • What is a computer?
  • The information processing cycle
  • Data versus information
  • Components of a computer
    • Input devices
    • The central processing unit
    • The main memory
    • Output devices
  • Where does the power of a computer come from?
  • Hardware versus software
slide3
Computers and computer literacy
  • Examples of computers?
    • Desktop, laptop, palmtop, …
  • Computer literacy:
    • Knowledge of the computer components
    • Knowledge of how a computer works
    • Knowledge of computer uses
unix most popular high end os
UNIX – Most Popular High End OS

Ken invented UNIX in cooperation with Dennis and Dennis invented the C Programming Language

Dennis Ritchie

Ken Thompson

what is a computer
What is a computer?
  • A computer is a programmable, multiuse machine that:
    • Accepts input
    • Processes it
    • Stores the processing results
    • Provides output
    • Communicates with others (For example: Other computers on a network such as the Internet)
slide10
The information processing cycle
  • Basic operations of a computer:
    • Input
    • Processing
    • Output
    • Secondary storage
data versus information
Data versus information
  • Data --> Facts
  • Information --> Meaning
slide13
Components of a computer …
  • Five major categories of devices
    • Input devices
    • System unit -- Processing & memory (CPU & RAM)
    • Output devices
    • Storage devices
    • Communications devices
  • Note: Input, output, storage, and communications devices are also called peripheral devices
slide14
Components of a computer ...
  • Examples of computer devices:
    • Input --> Keyboard; Mouse; Scanner
    • System unit --> CPU; Main Memory
    • Output --> CRT; Printer; Sound
    • Secondary storage --> Floppy Disk; Hard Disk; Magnetic Tape; Optical Disc (CD-ROM)
    • Communications -->Wired; Wireless; Modem
slide15
Components of a computer ... – The keyboard
  • A typical keyboard has:
    • Standard typewriter keys -- QWERTY
    • Enter key or Return key
    • Cursor movement keys
    • Numeric keys
    • Function keys -- For frequent tasks
    • Special-purpose keys -- Backspace, Delete, Insert, Esc, Ctrl, and Alt.
    • The start key is used for accessing system resources in Windows.
slide16
Standard Typewriter Keys

Function Keys

Numeric Keypad Keys

The keyboard ...

Special Purpose Keys

Cursor Movement Keys

slide17
Components of a computer ... – The mouse
  • The mouse is used with a Graphical User Interface (GUI).
  • Usage:
    • Rolled about on a desktop -- Directs a pointer on the screen.
    • Has a number of buttons (+a wheel).
    • Can be used to: click on an item or to drag it and drop it.
  • Types of mice:
    • Mechanical
    • Optical
    • Cordless
slide18
Components of a computer ... – The Central Processing Unit

CPU carries out instructions retrieved from main memory.

C U

CPU contains the CU and the ALU

ALU

Registers

slide19
Components of a computer ... – The main memory
  • Also known as memory, primary storage, internal memory, or Random Access Memory (RAM).
  • It is the working storage or “working space”.
  • Holds data, instructions, and intermediate results.
slide21
Components of a computer ... – Printers
  • Impact printers: Dot matrix printers are the most common impact printers.
  • Non-impact printers:
    • Ink-jet printers
    • Laser printers
  • Measuring the speeds of different printers
slide22
Components of a computer ... – Computer screens
  • Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) screens
  • Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens
  • The pixel is the smallest unit of any screen image
  • Measuring the resolutions of different computer screens
slide23
Where does the power of a computer come from?
  • Five factors make a computer powerful in carrying out its basic operations:
    • Speed
    • Reliability
    • Accuracy
    • Storage capacity
    • Ability to communicate with other computers
slide24
Hardware versus software
  • Hardware  Circuitry and physical components
  • Software (also programs or computer programs) consist of step-by-step instructions that tell the computer how to perform tasks
  • Each program is written in a computer programming language
  • Most computers carry out the instructions of a program in a sequential manner (meaning one instruction after another until the whole program is completed)
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