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Muscles and Bones. This lesson covers :. Part 1 - Five functions of bones Part 2 – Parts of a bone Part 3 – Types of joints Part 4 – Bone names Part 5 – Connective Tissue Part 6 – Three types of muscles Part 7 – How muscles work Part 8 – Muscle names Part 9 – Muscle and bone problems

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Muscles and Bones


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    1. Muscles and Bones

    2. Thislessoncovers: • Part 1 - Five functions of bones • Part 2 – Parts of a bone • Part 3 – Types of joints • Part 4 – Bone names • Part 5 – Connective Tissue • Part 6 – Three types of muscles • Part 7 – How muscles work • Part 8 – Muscle names • Part 9 – Muscle and bone problems • Part 10 – Care of muscles & bones

    3. Bones are part of what body system?

    4. Part 1: Five functions of bones Your bones have five really important jobs: • Protection • Structure & Support • Movement • Make Blood Cells • Store Minerals

    5. 1) Protection • Your bones protect important body organs • For example, your skull protects your brain

    6. 1) Protection • Your ribs protect your lungs and heart • Your vertebrae protect your spinal cord

    7. 2) Structure and Support • Your bones give your body structure, support, and shape • Without bones, you would be a giant blob

    8. Can you guess the animal based on the shape of the skeleton? • Dog • Bat • Snake • Frog

    9. 3) Movement • Muscles connect to bones to allow for movement

    10. 3) Movement • Muscles contract, pulling your bones in a certain direction

    11. 4) Make Blood Cells • Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are made in the bone marrow

    12. 5) Store Minerals • Minerals like calcium and phosphorus are stored inside your bones

    13. 5) Store Minerals • These minerals make bones strong and hard to break

    14. ‘Dem Bones Are Important!

    15. Part 2: Parts of a bone • The saying “dry as a bone” is not correct • Bones are alive • They have all sorts of cool layers

    16. Label the Bone Parts: Bone Marrow Spongy Bone Bone Marrow Cavity Periosteum Compact Bone

    17. Explain the Bone Parts: Bone Marrow:Where blood cells are formed Spongy Bone:Lighter, more porous Periosteum:Thin outer membrane Peri = outer, edge Osteo = bone Bone Marrow Cavity:Contains bone marrow Compact Bone:Harder, heavier, more dense

    18. You can even explore bone cellstructure if you wish!

    19. Osteons are cylinder-shaped structures containing bone cells See how bone cells connect to each other for strength

    20. Bones arecool, yo !

    21. Part 3: Types of Joints • Any point at which bones meet is called a joint • Most joints are movable, such as elbows, knees, fingers, and toes

    22. Part 3: Types of Joints • Some joints do not move • For example: • Where bones of your skull meet • Your tailbone (coccyx)

    23. Sutures are the points where immovable joints connect

    24. Newborn babies have soft spots where the sutures have not yet closed permanently

    25. Let’s look at the following kinds of joints: • Hinge • Gliding • Pivot • Ball and Socket

    26. Hinge Joints: • One direction only • Like a door hinge • Knees & elbows are hinges

    27. Gliding Joints: • Bones can slide and rub against each other • Limited movement • Wrists, ankles

    28. Pivot Joints: • Allow for spinning and limited rotation • Where radius meets humerus at elbow • Where head meets neck

    29. Ball and Socket Joints: • Move in all directions • Allow rotation • Hips and shoulders

    30. Part 4: Bone names • Your body has 206 bones! • Each bone has a name

    31. 206Bones? • Cranial bones (8) • Facial bones (14) • In the middle ears (6) • In the throat (1) • Shoulder girdle (4) • In the thorax (25) • Ribs (2 x 12) • Vertebral column (24) • In the arms (2) • In the forearms (4) • In the hands (54) • In the pelvis (4) • In the thighs (2) • In the legs (6) • In the feet (52)

    32. Let’s learn the names of a few common bones:

    33. Skull Bones:

    34. Front view of Skull:

    35. Side View of Skull:

    36. Arm and Hand Bones:

    37. How many ribs do you have?

    38. Vertebrae (back bones) 7 total 12 total 5 total Sacrum: 5 Coccyx: 4

    39. Pelvis Bone Anatomy:

    40. Leg and Foot Bones:

    41. Can You Name Them Bones?

    42. 1 – Cranium (skull) • 2 – Mandible (jaw) • 3 – Clavicle (collar bone) • 4 – Sternum (breast bone) • 5 - Humerus • 6 - Ribs • 7 – Vertebrae (back) • 8 - Pelvis • 9 – Ulna (pinky side) • 10 – Radius (thumb side) • 11 - Carpals • 12 - Metacarpals • 13 – Phalanges (fingers) • 14 - Femur • 15 – Patella (knee cap) • 16 – Tibia (shin) • 17 – Fibula (outside ankle) • 18 - Tarsals • 19 - Metatarsals • 20 – Phalanges (toes)

    43. Good job, you boneheads!

    44. Part 5: Connective Tissue • Let’s look at four types of connective tissue • Ligaments • Tendons • Cartilage • Synovial Fluid

    45. Ligaments: • Connect bones to bones at a joint

    46. Ligaments: • Strong cords of tissue that hold your skeleton together • Keep your joints from popping out of place every time you move

    47. Ligaments: • Ligaments can be damaged!

    48. Tendons: • Attach muscle to bone

    49. Tendons: • Tough bands of tissue • Very strong and flexible

    50. Tendons: • The Achilles Tendon attaches the calf muscle to the back of the heel • Rupturing this tendon is not a good idea