Introduction to Social Marketing Thanks to: Dr. Debra Basil - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Introduction to Social Marketing Thanks to: Dr. Debra Basil

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  1. Introduction to Social MarketingThanks to: Dr. Debra Basil

  2. Outline • Social Marketing defined • Behavior Management Tools: - Education - Marketing - Law • Public Policy Perspectives • Case study: UW traffic reduction

  3. Social Marketing • Social Marketing applies the principles of marketing to address social problems by influencing behavior change. • Social marketing requires: • A “customer” focused approach • Voluntary behaviour change • An exchange • Individual or societal benefit (rather than corporate benefit or profit)

  4. What is Marketing? • Marketing is the process of planning and executing the product, pricing, promotion, and distribution/placement of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals. • Social marketing applies these principles to individual behaviour change to benefit individuals and/or society.

  5. Carrots, Sticks & Promises Based on Rothschild 1999, other works by Dr. Michael Rothschild, the Turning Point Initiative, and work by Dr. Sameer Deshpande

  6. Behavior Management • Three major classes of strategic tools • Education • Marketing • Force of law • What do they share? • Spread knowledge • Change attitudes • Alter behaviors

  7. Law-Education-Marketing

  8. Marketing compared to Education and Law • Proneness to behave • Motivation/Opportunity/Ability • Public policy perspective

  9. Proneness to Behave Resistant to Behave as Desired Prone to behave as Desired Can’t See and Can’t Convey Self Interest or Benefits Easy to See or Convey Self Interest Need to Manage and Show Benefits no/weak competition passive/active competition unmanageable competition Education Marketing Law

  10. Behavior = Function (Motivation, Opportunity, Ability) • Motivation: • Goal directed arousal • Self interest • Group norms • Opportunity • Environment allows behavior • Ability • Target has skills and proficiency

  11. MOTIVATION yes no yes no yes no OPPORTUNITY ABILITY prone to behave unable to behave resistant to behave resistant to behave yes education marketing law marketing law unable to behave unable to behave resistant to behave resistant to behave no educationmarketing educationmarketing educationmarketinglaw educationmarketinglaw

  12. Education vs. Marketing • Social Benefit vs. Self-interest • Get your mumps immunization so that we don’t have an epidemic • Get your mumps vaccine because your testicles will really hurt and your friends (you give it to) will hate you

  13. Education vs. Marketing • Timing & Payback of the Exchange • Education typically shows a vague payback at some point in the future, ex: exercise & eat better and you will lower the probability of dying of a heart attack (someday) • Marketing shows an explicit and short-term payback, ex: eat this cereal and you will able to fit into that dress for the office Christmas party

  14. Public Policy Perspectives • Free Choice & Externalities • How to balance free choice with control of health cost externalities? • What are roles of law, education, and marketing? • Example: Helmet laws

  15. Public Policy Perspectives • The Tragedy of the Commons • How to balance free choice with control of resource depletion externalities? • What are roles of law, education, and marketing? • Example: Overfishing

  16. Public Policy Perspectives • Social Dilemmas • How to deal with situations in which there is a net benefit to society even though each citizen is inconvenienced? • What are roles of law, education, and marketing? • Example: One Tonne Challenge

  17. Public Policy Perspective • Education: Clearly free choice • Force of Law: Clearly coercive • Where does (Social) Marketing fit? • Free choice with incentives? • Coercively appealing? • The pleasure of being targeted is all mine?

  18. Case Study: University of Washington’s U-Pass program • Problem: Volume of traffic in Seattle’s University District • University of Washington decided to use social marketing strategies to reduce traffic in the district in 1991.

  19. Segmentation Process • Identify most relevant variables for segmentation • Segment individuals • Select target group(s) • Select important secondary targets • Gatekeepers, influencers

  20. Targeting • Targeting Criteria • Segment size • Potential/expected growth or decline • “Competition” • Cost of marketing • Fit with org resources/objectives

  21. Segmentation and Targeting: UW program • Segmented based on affiliation with UW • Segmented based on type of affiliation • Faculty and staff • Students • Targeted all with UW affiliation • Different products based on type of affiliation

  22. Marketing: The Four P’s • Product • Price • Place • Promotion

  23. Product • Behaviour, service, product being exchanged with the target audience for a price and benefit • Must compete successfully against the benefit of the current behaviour • Actual product = primary behaviour advocated • Augmented product = tangible objects/services to support behaviour • Benefits: Positive outcomes occurring from product use

  24. Product: UW program • Actual product: • Alternatives to driving alone • Augmented product: • U-pass program • Increased mass transit service at reduced rates • Shuttle service • Benefits: • Save money (bus pass, parking, etc.) • Help environment

  25. Price • Cost to the target audience of changing behavior • Barriers to behaviour change • Can be financial, or more often related to other “costs” • time • effort • lifestyle • psychological cost

  26. Price: UW program • Inconvenient • Takes more time • Less freedom

  27. Place • Channels through which products or programs are available (access) • Move programs or products to places that the audience frequents, in order to ease access

  28. Place: UW program • Mass transit line (more stops) • Home (shuttle service) • Campus parking lots (free for carpools)

  29. Promotion • Communicating your offering and the benefits of behaviour change to individuals. • Promotional Methods: • Advertising, Personal contact, Promotional items/incentives, Publicity (free media), Direct contact • What is your message? • Be clear and single-minded

  30. Promotion: UW program • “U-PASS: For You and the U” • Promotional materials, including posters, brochures, and campus newspaper advertising • “Commuter Information Centers” • Emphasis on the program’s incentives: lower prices and more commute options • Endorsement by University Vice President

  31. UW promotional piece

  32. Incentives and Disincentives • Incentives: Additional enticements offered to encourage trial and use of the product • Disincentives: Deterrents introduced to discourage current (undesirable) behaviour

  33. Incentives: UW program • Unlimited usage of mass transit during the month • University parking rates increased significantly for single drivers (disincentive) • Free parking to faculty and staff carpools • Vanpools: Vans picked up and dropped off only 8-15 passengers at or near their homes. • Cyclists: New bicycle paths through the University, free bike lockers and racks, free helmet ($5 for staff and faculty) with the purchase of a tune-up

  34. Positioning • Based on PERCEPTION • Perceptual map • Relative to own products (your other offerings or potential offerings) • Relative to competition (behaviour you hope to extinguish)

  35. Marketing: Perceptual MapAutomobiles Price BMW + Lexus Fiat Camry Reliability - Subaru + Esteem Aspire -

  36. Social Marketing: Perceptual MapUW Commuting Options Cost + Driving alone - + Convenience Mass transit Carpool Biking -

  37. Outcomes: UW program • Problem: • Extreme traffic congestion in the University District during morning and afternoon commutes. Situation affects University students, faculty, and staff plus local residents and workers and creates longer commutes, pollution, and frustration. • Desired outcome: • Reduce single-occupancy vehicles in U District • Measure of success: • UW single-occupancy vehicle use decreased from 33% to 23% • transit use increased from 21% to 33%