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RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLINESS OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES OF INDIAN RAILWAYS. A.K.Rao Director General. RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA. IR - Resources. 1.4 Million employees 108,500 Track Km 63,000 Route Km 7,000 Stations 7,900 Locomotives

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improving energy efficiency and environment friendliness of diesel locomotives of indian railways

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLINESS OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES OF INDIAN RAILWAYS

A.K.Rao

Director General

ir resources

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

IR - Resources
  • 1.4 Million employees
  • 108,500 Track Km
    • 63,000 Route Km
  • 7,000 Stations
  • 7,900 Locomotives
  • 230,000 wagons
  • 45,000 coaches
ir operations

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

IR - Operations
  • 5 Billion Passengers per annum
    • Moving Entire Swiss Population Twice in a day
  • 8,000+ Passenger Trains per day
  • Computerised reservations – One million transactions per day
    • Amongst the largest IT applications in the world
  • 670 Million tonnes Freight per annum
    • 3,000 Freight trains on the system
  • Revenue – US $ 12 Billion per annum
ir service profile passenger

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

IR Service Profile - Passenger
  • Diverse Customer Base
    • 8 travel classes
    • Charge for 1000 Km range US $ 2 to 50
  • 58% Suburban passengers
    • 150 Km Monthly Fare US $ 8
  • Amongst the Lowest Passenger to Freight rate ratios in the world = 0.3
ir service profile freight

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

IR Service Profile – Freight
  • Entire Spectrum
    • Bulk coal/ores – 63%
    • Bagged commodities – 23%
    • Iron & Steel – 4%
    • Petro Products – 6%
    • Containerised cargo – 4%
diesel vs electric traction

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Diesel vs. Electric Traction
  • Total Annual Consumption
    • Diesel Oil : 2 Billion Litres
    • Electric Energy : 10 Billion Kwh
  • % Traffic
  • Total locomotives
    • Diesel : 4801
    • Electric : 3065
diesel traction in india

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Diesel Traction in India
  • Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW), the manufacturing unit of Indian Railways produces 130 diesel locomotives per annum.
  • Majority of Diesel Locomotives fleet includes
    • 16-cylinder ALCO & EMD Engines;
    • 12-cylinder ALCO Engines; and
    • 6-cylinder ALCO Engines.
  • Fuel Bill of Indian Railways is US $1.3 Billion.
  • To reduce high-energy costs, RDSO has worked to improve energy efficiency of their Diesel engines.
engine test bed facilities

Test Bed

Test Commander

HSDA System

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Engine Test Bed Facilities
  • Test bed facilities in RDSO have four Test Cells housing four types of DLW manufactured Engines.
    • 16 cylinder GM-EMD,
    • 16 cylinder ALCO,
    • 12 cylinder ALCO,
    • 6 cylinder ALCO
  • Each test cell has Test Commander comprising of
    • microprocessor controlled Data acquisition systems; and
    • Video Display Unit (VDU)
  • Test beds have been provided with High Speed Data Acquisition System to
    • acquire 100 MHz frequency data.
improvement in energy efficiency

250

166

4000 HP

225

3600 HP

206.2

156

3300 HP

154

193.7

SFC

gm/bhp-hr.

HP/Cylinder

151.5

3100 HP

150

162.5

2600 HP

1960-90

1990-2000

Year

Stage-wise improvement in BSFC and increase in Horse-Power per cylinder

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Improvement in Energy Efficiency

Sustained efforts made to improve the diesel locomotive technology of 1950s, entirely through in-house research and development.

2000-2006

2006-2008

energy efficiency improvements

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Energy Efficiency Improvements

First stage modifications in the 16-cylinder ALCO engines resulted in:

  • 6% reduction of fuel consumption at full load from 166 gm/bhp/hr to 156 gm/bhp/hr.
  • 15 % reduction in the % lube-fuel oil ratio from 1.5% to 1.27%.
modifications stage i

Modification In Cooling Water Piping

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Modifications Stage-I

Efficient After –Cooler

  • Water to after-cooler fed directly from the radiator.
  • Size of the core increased.
  • Increase in cooling effectiveness from 50% to 75%.
modifications stage i14

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Modifications Stage-I
  • Plunger diameter of fuel injection pump increased from 15 mm to 17 mm.
  • The modification resulted in increase of peak fuel line pressure from 750 to 850 bars.

Modification of Fuel Injection Pump

modifications stage i15

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Modifications Stage-I
  • Global Efficiency improved from 50% to 60%.
  • Increase in booster air pressure from 1.2 bars to 1.6 bars.

Development of Improved turbochargers

modifications stage i16

Modification of Cam Shaft

Aluminium Dish Top

Steel Cap

Development of 12.5 CR Steel Cap Pistons

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Modifications Stage-I
  • Change in Inlet and Exhaust air cam lobes profile as well as Increased valve overlap to improve scavenging.
  • Steel cap pistons provided to withstand higher firing pressures.
energy efficiency improvements17

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Energy Efficiency Improvements

In Second stage, power of the engine was increased along with the reduction in fuel consumption and lube-fuel oil ratio:

  • Power from 2600 HP (FE) to 3100 HP by increasing the engine rpm from 1000 to 1050 rpm
  • 2% reduction of fuel consumption at full load from 156 gm/bhp-hr to 153 gm/bhp-hr at 8th notch
  • 12 % reduction in the % lube-fuel oil ratio from 1.27% to 1.12%.
modifications stage ii

FE Piston Rings

High Efficiency Turbo

Multigrade Lube Oil

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Modifications Stage-II
  • Increase in the Booster pressure from 1.6 to 1.9 bar.
  • Speed of rotor increased from 23,000 to 27,000 rpm.
  • Piston ring set changed to
    • barrel, taper, taper and
    • 2 no. oil conformable
  • These oils have Viscosity Index Improver additive.
energy efficiency improvements19

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Energy Efficiency Improvements

In the third stage, the technological improvements have been made to :

  • uprate the engine to 3300 HP in the year 2001 and to 3600 HP in 2002.
  • 1% reduction of fuel consumption at full load from 153 gm/bhp-hr to 151.5 gm/bhp-hr on top notch.
  • 11 % reduction in the % lube-fuel oil ratio from 1.12% to 1%.
modifications stage iii

New Generation Turbochargers

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Modifications Stage-III

Stiffer Unit Cam Shaft

  • Camshaft strengthened to take increased stress.
  • Fuel cam lobe profile modified for sharper fuel injection.
  • These aircooled turbochargers have higher global efficiency.
  • Rotor speed of these turbochargers also increased resulting in increased BAP.
modifications stage iii21

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Modifications Stage-III
  • Air intake valve angle reduced to take care of increased heat load.
  • Location of cooling passages changed to give better heat transfer.

Development of Plus cylinder head

energy efficiency improvements22

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Energy Efficiency Improvements

Modifications in the fourth stage have been tested on test Beds but yet to be implemented. With these modifications :

  • Fuel consumption has been reduced by more than 2% over duty cycle.
  • Lube oil consumption has been further reduced by more than 6%.
modifications stage iv

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Modifications Stage-IV
  • EFI pump sets the start and end of injection for each cylinder individually .
  • The system eliminates many mechanical engine components including the Governor itself.

Electronic Fuel Injection System

modifications stage iv24

SingleHelix Plunger

Double Helix Plunger

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Modifications Stage-IV
  • Additional Helix provided on top edge of plunger
    • so as to optimise the opening of spill port
    • resulting in optimisation of start of injection at part load as well.

Double Helix Fuel Injection Pump

diesel traction in india25

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Diesel Traction in India
  • So far, no Standards have been laid down in India for Emission norms of Diesel Locomotives.
  • Indian Railways, being socially conscious organisation, is making efforts to
    • reduce Diesel engine pollutants namely NOx, SO2, HC, CO, CO2 and Particulates having serious effect on health and environment.
emissions from alco engines

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Emissions from ALCO Engines
  • NOx emissions measurements made in Nov. 1996 on 6-cylinder engine using Chemiluminescent detector based equipment.
    • The measurements gave the NOx value of 11.09 gm./kW-hr.
test bed measurements

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Test Bed measurements
  • Measurements on 12 and 16 Cyl. Engine made by using a portable emission measuring equipment in November 2000.
emissions from alco engines28

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Emissions from ALCO Engines
  • Only gaseous emission measurements could be made with the portable equipment .
  • Emission measurements were made at different engine configurations. It has been seen that
    • Emissions are higher only for CO and NOx.
    • Since HC values in the ALCO engines are much lower than the limits, it will be possible to recuce CO and NOx .
emissions measurements

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Emissions Measurements
  • Since portable equipments do not meet International standards, RDSO has procured the dedicated Mass emission measuring equipment.
    • The same is presently under commissioning on the test beds of RDSO. The equipment under commissioning includes
trials with bio diesel

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Trials with Bio-Diesel
  • Use of environmental friendly Bio-diesel as an alternate fuel has been tried out.
  • Testing on engine test bed has been conducted followed by field trials.
  • Following observations have been made :
    • No significant power loss observed.
    • Specific fuel consumption is higher.
    • Exhaust gas temperatures have reduced.
    • Boost air pressures have got reduced.
    • Gaseous hydrocarbons have reduced.
use of bio diesel

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Use of Bio-Diesel

Other action taken to promote use of Bio-Diesel in Indian Railways is as under:

  • Southern Railway and South Eastern Railway have got trans-esterification plant and are running few trains with B10 diesel.
  • All the Railways are growing Jatropha plants on their surplus land.
  • Indian Railways have signed an MOU with Indian Oil Corporation to plant Jatropha saplings on the land of Indian Railways.
use of cng in demu

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Use of CNG in DEMU
  • Use of CNG as an alternate fuel has been investigated on DEMU engines to see the environmental impact.
  • One rake of CNG DEMU is presently running in Delhi area. The special Features of CNG DEMU include:
  • 30% savings in operation and maintenance cost.
  • Savings of Rs.27 lakhs per engine per year.
  • Reduced engine wear.
  • Reduced lubricating oil consumption.
  • Substantial reduction in Exhaust emissions.
action plan to reduce emissions

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Action Plan to reduce Emissions

Following future action plan has been made to measure and reduce Emissions:

  • Base-line emissions measurement will start immediately after commissioning of Mass emission measurment equipment.
  • A trans-esterification plant is being planned at RDSO to optimize engine parameters with Bio-diesels produced from different plants.
action plan to reduce emissions34

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Action Plan to reduce Emissions
  • A leading engine designer Consultant is being contacted to assist Railways in reducing Emissions.
  • Emission measurement Car for measuring in-use emissions in field is planned.
emissions from new engines

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Emissions from New Engines

Results of Emissions and Particulates measurements made for 16 cylinder EMD 4000 HP engine in 2001:

  • It is seen from above that
  • HC, PM and NOx Emissions are marginally higher than limits.
  • Since CO values are lower than the limits in the standards, it is possible to reduce HC, PM and NOx Emissions.
effluents control in diesel sheds

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Effluents Control in Diesel Sheds

Uncontrolled effluents of diesel sheds have an impact on the environment. Following work has been done to achieve the above:

  • An Environmental Management System (EMS) has been laid down
    • the head of the maintenance unit is responsible to establish environmental policy.
  • A Waste Management System (WMS) has been laid down as per which
    • the main hazardous wastes generated in the maintenance unit have been identified and
    • the procedures for disposal of these waste materials have been laid down.
effluents control in diesel sheds37

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Effluents Control in Diesel Sheds
  • Main equipments for disposal of hazardous as well as non-hazardous wastes include:
    • Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
    • Incinerator
  • Need for above Equipment, Design parameters, Specifications and Agencies for installation have been specified.
  • The Landfill sites for disposal of above waste have been included in the above system.
fuel efficiency indices

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Fuel Efficiency Indices

The following two fuel efficiency indices are popularly used on Indian Railways:

Fuel Consumption on 8th Notch

Fuel consumption at this notch is one of the important fuel efficiency index since

  • Fuel consumption at 8th notch is highest; and
  • Locomotives run at this notch for longer duration.

Fuel Consumption over Duty cycle

Notch-wise percentage running of locomotive over duty cycle for passenger and freight operations of Indian Railways locomotives is as under:

Fuel consumption (in kg/hr) over duty cycle is calculated by taking weighted average of fuel consumption at every notch over duty cycle.

alco locomotives emissions
ALCO Locomotives Emissions

- All values are in gm/bhp-hr

- Measurements made with Portable equipment only

mass emission measuring equipment

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Mass Emission measuring equipment

Other equipments of Mass emission measuring equipment include:

environmental management system

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Environmental Management System

The head of the maintenance unit has to establish environmental policy keeping in mind the following aspects :

  • Nature, scale and environmental impacts of activities and products.
  • Commitment to continual improvement and prevention of pollution.
  • Minimisation of the waste material generated during activities.
  • Commitment to comply with environmental legislation / Regulation and other requirements.
  • Provide a framework for setting and reviewing the environmental objectives and targets.
waste management system

RDSO, Lucknow, INDIA

Waste Management System

The procedures for disposal of waste materials includes:

  • Collection and disposal of the waste generated in diesel loco sheds;
  • Disposal of waste oil;
  • Measures to control spillage of fuel & lubricating oil;
  • Leakage / spillage of fuel oil from fuel installation or fire anywhere in the shed;
  • Acid spillage.