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Effective Writing Instruction for All Students

Effective Writing Instruction for All Students

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Effective Writing Instruction for All Students

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  1. Effective Writing Instruction for All Students Developed by Region IV Education Service Center in collaboration with the Texas Education Agency

  2. News Flash “Children want to write. They want to write the first day they attend school. This is no accident. Before they went to school, they marked up walls, pavements, and newspapers with crayons, chalk, pens or pencils… anything that makes a mark. The child’s marks say ‘I am’.” Graves, 1983 2

  3. What Happens? Research shows that about 90% of the students entering first grade believe they can write, but only about 15%believe they can read. Graves, 1983 3

  4. Traditional Methods of Teaching Writing • Frequency • Grammatical • Evaluative • Formula 4

  5. Components of Effective Writing Instruction Focus on Established Standards Teach the Writing Process Monitor Progress 5

  6. 12 K TEKS-Based Instruction • Vertical Alignment of the TEKS • Horizontal Alignment of the TEKS • TEKS Strand Connection • TEKS/TAKS Connection 6

  7. 12 K Vertical Alignment of TEKS Vertical alignment provides continuity of instruction across grade levels. District and campus vertical teams of teachers must meet regularly and have purposeful grade-level overlap. 7

  8. Your grade level Your grade level Your grade level Your grade level Your grade level Horizontal Alignment of TEKS Purposeful horizontal alignment ensures that all classroom instruction at a particular grade level is planned from a unified, connected curriculum. 8

  9. Language Arts Strands Receptive Expressive 9

  10. Language Arts Strands Writing TEKS Listening/ speaking TEKS Viewing/ representing TEKS Reading TEKS 10

  11. Reading and Writing Connection “Reading and writing are two sides of the same coin. Both processes involve creating meaning through print.” Cullinan, 1993 11

  12. Research on Reading/Writing Connection Reading and writing as processes involve the construction of text from prior knowledge, personal meanings, and relationships discovered through reading/writing engagements. Kucer, 1985 Proficient readers and writers actively control their actions and shift strategies as they construct and monitor meaning. Birnbaum, 1982 12

  13. Research on the Reading/Writing Connection The development of thinking and learning from multiple perspectives is greatest when the interrelatedness of reading and writing is made evident to students. Reading and writing are each enhanced when they are taught and learned together. 13

  14. Reading TEKS Reading/Writing TEKS Connection Writing TEKS 14

  15. TEKS/TAKS Connection Writing Grades 4 and 7 English Language Arts (ELA) Grade 10 and Grade 11 Exit Level 15

  16. TAKS Grades 4 & 7 Writing Objectives 1 and 2 Composition Objectives 3, 4, 5, 6 Revising and Editing 16

  17. TAKS Grades 4 & 7 Writing:Composition Objective 1 (focus and coherence, organization, development of ideas, voice) The student will, within a given context, produce an effective composition for a specific purpose. Objective 2 (conventions) The student will produce a piece of writing that demonstrates a command of the conventions of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure. 17

  18. TAKS Grades 4 & 7 Writing:Revising and Editing Objective 3 The student will recognize appropriate organization of ideas in written text. Objective 4 The student will recognize correct and effective sentence construction in written text. 18

  19. TAKS Grades 4 & 7 Writing:Revising and Editing Objective 5 The student will recognize standard usage and appropriate word choice in written text. Objective 6 The student will proofread for correct punctuation, capitalization, and spelling in written text. Revising and editing objectives are accomplished within the context of peer editing. 19

  20. TAKS Grade 10 & Grade 11 Exit Level: ELA Test Objectives 1, 2, 3 Reading Objectives 4, 5 Composition Objective 6 Revising & Editing 20

  21. Objective 1 The student will demonstrate a basic understanding of culturally diverse written texts. Objective 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the effects of literary elements and techniques in culturally diverse written texts. Objective 3 The student will demonstrate the ability to analyze and critically evaluate culturally diverse written texts and visual representations. TAKS Grade 10 & Grade 11 Exit Level: Reading Objectives 21

  22. TAKS Grade 10 & Grade 11 Exit Level: Composition Objective 4 (focus and coherence, organization, development of ideas, voice) The student will, within a given context, produce an effective composition for a specific purpose. Objective 5 (conventions) The student will produce a piece of writing that demonstrates a command of the conventions of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure. 22

  23. TAKS Grade 10 & Grade 11 Exit Level: Revising and Editing Objective 6 The student will demonstrate the ability to revise and proofread to improve the clarity and effectiveness of a piece of writing. The revising and editing objective is accomplished within the context of peer editing. 23

  24. How Do We Teach Writing? “Teaching writing is no different than teaching any other subject. The teacher has to know the subject, the process, the children, and the means for the children to become independent learners.” Graves, 1983 24

  25. The Writing Process • Promote effective writing instruction in the classroom • Teach writing as a process • Understand the stages of the writing process 25

  26. Promoting Effective Writing Instruction in the Classroom Sufficient Time • Writing Conferences • Teacher/Student Conferences • Peer Conferences Modeling Mini-lessons 26

  27. Sufficient Time • Elementary students should write a minimum of four times a week, for at least 35 to 40 minutes. (Graves, 1983) • Secondary students should write as much as possible each day during English class and across the curriculum. 27

  28. Sufficient Time “Writing taught once or twice a week is just frequent enough to remind students that they can’t write and teachers that they can’t teach.” Graves, 1983 28

  29. Support Provided Through Teacher Modeling Modeling or demonstrating is an important part of all good instruction, including mini-lesson instruction. Writing Instruction Examples of Good Writing 29

  30. Mini-Lessons in Writing • Are of short duration (10–20 minutes) • Demonstrate important aspects of the writing process with clear, powerful examples • Focus on a specific writing principle or procedure • Are interactive and meet students’ needs 30

  31. Mini-Lessons in Writing Procedural Matters Literary Concepts Strategy and Skill Lessons 31

  32. Mini-Lessons in Writing Students should apply and be held accountable for skills and strategiestaught in mini-lessons. 32

  33. Teacher/Student Writing Conferences – Purposes • The teacher • Helps the writer, not the writing • Identifies instructional needs to be used as a basis for planning mini-lessons • Learns how the writer is progressing in his/her application of the writing process 33

  34. Teacher/Student Writing Conferences – Purposes The teacher discovers What students know about topic development and organization If students can write using their own voice for a variety of purposes and audiences If students can revise and edit effectively 34

  35. Types of Teacher/Student Conferences On-The-Spot Writing Process Stages Instructional Mini-lessons Assessment Portfolio 35

  36. Teacher/Student Writing Conferences • Listen to the student talk about the writing and find out what kind of help is needed • Teach strategies and activities that a more experienced writer uses to write well • Reinforce strategies taught in mini-lessons • Evaluate student progress Conferences should not be lengthy, drawn-out sessions. 36

  37. Teacher/Student Writing Conferences • Point outspecific positive aspects in the writing and reinforce strengths • Assist students in setting goals • Teachstudents to be reflective and evaluative about their writing Our goal is for our students to become independent writers. 37

  38. Purposes of Peer Conferences Give students real and immediate audiences for their work Help develop effective communication skills Assist students in becoming self-evaluators Improve student writing 38

  39. Work together through the stages of the writing process Peer Conference Activities • Talk about choices for topic, audience, purpose, and form • Ask questions so the writing is clear and understandable to the reader • Edit for spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and grammatical errors 39

  40. Process writing is a reflective process because the writer is constantly thinking and rethinking about his/her writing. Why Teach Writing as a Process? • Shifts emphasis from a product-driven approach to a process-driven approach • Provides effective writing instruction • Enforces the process all writers go through as they develop their compositions 40

  41. Stages in the Writing Process Prewriting Reflective Recursive Publishing Drafting Revising Editing 41

  42. Prewriting Prewriting • Helps create ideas and organize the writer’s thoughts • Focuses a writer’s attention on a particular subject, purpose, audience, and form • Motivates a person to write 42

  43. Prewriting Prewriting Goals • Explore the possibilities in the writing task • Stimulate and enlarge the writer’s thoughts • Movewriters from the stage of thinking about a writing task to the act of writing • Develop a plan to help choose the topic, purpose, audience, and form or structure Do not overlook prewriting activities! 43

  44. If the teacher continually supplies the topic, students never experience the pleasure and challenge of choosing their own subjects for writing. Furthermore, students may not have anything to say about the topic or may not want to say anything about it. Prewriting Selecting a Topic • Teacher-assigned topics should provide choice. • Students should also have opportunities for self-selected topics. 44

  45. “Writing is best done if it involves a subject or idea about which a child has some knowledge or possesses some feeling.” Bromley, 1998 Prewriting Selecting a Topic 45

  46. Students hearing others’ choices Prewriting Strategies for Topic Selection Problems Teacher/peer discussion Teacher modeling 46

  47. Writing for real audiences motivates the writer and gives a reason for writing. Prewriting Audience Writers need to consider • Who is the audience or reader? • What does that reader know or want to know about the subject? 47

  48. Narrative Expository Persuasive Prewriting Purpose Purpose is a controlling factor in the way the paper will be written. Types of purposes include 48

  49. Prewriting Narrative Elements of Story Structure Plot Characters Setting Theme Point of View 49

  50. Prewriting Expository Expository Text Structures Description Sequencing Compare and Contrast Cause and Effect Problem and Solution 50