crj 132 chapter six hostage taking negotiations l.
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CrJ 132 Chapter Six Hostage Taking & Negotiations. General thoughts on hostage taking Dramatic increase in last decade 2K reported – may be many more Increase in criminal/psychotic episodes Instant media coverage from anywhere Multiple demands for release:

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CrJ 132 Chapter Six Hostage Taking & Negotiations


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    1. CrJ 132 Chapter SixHostage Taking & Negotiations • General thoughts on hostage taking • Dramatic increase in last decade • 2K reported – may be many more • Increase in criminal/psychotic episodes • Instant media coverage from anywhere • Multiple demands for release: • Free prisoners – Money – Prison reform – Political change – Political asylum

    2. Hostage Taking & Negotiations • Earlier History • Richard the Lionhearted • Nazis in Czechoslovakia • More Current History • Columbia FARC & FLN – Ransom • Political Hostages • Israeli soldiers - Hamas & Hezbollah • Saddam in 1st Iraq War - Human Shields • Russian theater & Chechen rebels

    3. Hostage Taking & NegotiationsModern Political Hostage Taking • Four Objectives • Large sums of ransom $$ • Media attention & national or international recognition • Grassroots community support • Weaken free enterprise system by intimidating foreign investment • Free political prisoners in swap

    4. Hostage Taking & NegotiationsTypologies of Hostage Takers • Many models -use text- Table 6.1 • Based on motivation of hostage taker • Poland suggests: • Psychotic hostage takers • Criminal hostage takers • Political hostage takers

    5. Hostage Taking & NegotiationsPsychotic • Mentally deranged – Often suicidal – Angry – Seeks personal recognition – Often estranged from family – Barricaded suspect • Usually wants media exposure • Has considerable power because he/she is so unpredictable • Hard to negotiate with – Irrational

    6. Hostage Taking & NegotiationsCriminal • Fleeing felon – Prison inmate riots – Extortionist kidnapper – Barricaded suspect • Generally, most rational & predictable – seek to avoid arrest • 60% of all U.S. hostage situations • Fleeing crime scene & police arrive • Negotiation easier than with psychotic

    7. Hostage Taking & NegotiationsPolitical Hostage Taker • Social protestor, religious zealot, seeking vengeance, air hijackings • Reasons may be political, social, religious, or ethnic crusader • Strong commitment to ideology • Seek publicity & often prisoner release or payment • Often irrational, commitment to the “cause” – Preconceived demands & identified limits

    8. Hostage Taking & NegotiationsWhy Motivation Matters • Different motives require different responses • Different motives may require different negotiators • Different motives may involve different government agencies & ops. • Responsive actions driven by motivation -- helps coordinate tactical responses & strategies

    9. Hostage Taking & NegotiationsGeneral Negotiation Guidelines • Play for time - Initial minutes critical • Confusion, fear, unexpected response • Play for trust • Rapport with hostage taker • Reduces likelihood of harm to hostages • Self-disclosure – Empathy – Good listening – Personal interest in hostage takers problems & feelings – No outright rejection of demands

    10. Hostage Taking & Negotiations General Negotiation Guidelines • Play for the “Stockholm Syndrome” • Unconscious emotional response to the experience of victimization • Positive feelings of hostages toward hostage taker • Reciprocal, positive feelings of hostage takers toward hostages • Negative feelings toward police by hostage takers & hostages

    11. Hostage Taking & Negotiations“Stockholm Syndrome” • Not present in all hostage incidents • Absence of negative experiences during the incident (no beatings, rapes, etc.) • Not present if hostage taker dehumanizes the victim (beheadings) • However, with time, a bond of empathy often grows between victim & hostage taker

    12. Hostage Taking & Negotiations“Stockholm Syndrome” • Negotiators foster SS by: • Checking on health of hostages • Discussing family issues with “Perp” • Requesting information on treatment & condition of hostages • Stockholm Syndrome often saves lives of hostages & hostage takers • Police must resist early application of deadly force

    13. Hostage Taking & NegotiationsLondon Syndrome • A hostage or hostages continually challenges the hostage takers • Physically or verbally challenge • Threatened – “ Just you wait!” • Don’t argue with hostage takers, because normally they eliminate you • London incident – Achille Lauro incident

    14. Hostage Taking & NegotiationsGuidelines for Hostage Events • Trained negotiator is essential • Well-trained, elite response force • Media cooperation • Clear chain of command • Identification of response personnel • Identification of hostage takers and numbers, if possible

    15. Hostage Taking & NegotiationsGuidelines for Hostage Events • Avoid shifts in location if possible • Keep relatives away – audience • Totally nonnegotiable • New weapons, explosives or ammo • No exchange of hostages • No concessions without something in return • No drugs, narcotics or alcohol

    16. Hostage Taking & NegotiationsNegotiator Strategies • Play for time • Tricks are deceit are dangerous tactics – more successful with psychotics & criminals • No promises you can’t keep • Preferred style is one of mutual concession -compromise, problem solving, and “give & take”

    17. Hostage Taking & NegotiationsHostage Rescue • Question - When to use force? • Mixed record of successful results • Perfect timing & surprise • Hostage lives at risk • “Disproportionate Force” • Expect media “second-guessing”

    18. Hostage Taking & Negotiations U.S. Attempt - Not Successful • Iranian hostages & rescue attempt • 53 Americans captured at Embassy – during rescue, location was unknown • Multiple services involved – equipment problems & coordination difficulties • Ambitious, daring rescue plan • 8 rescuers died – bodies left behind • Great propaganda victory for Iran • No test questions on “Good Guys”

    19. Hostage Taking & NegotiationsOther Rescue Attempts • Rescue at Entebbe Airport • Great Israeli intel & insight & surprise • French Aircraft at Marseille - GIA • Killed 3, released women & children • Attempt to create a “flying bomb” • Peruvian Embassy Party - tunnels • Russia and the Chechen hostage takers at the Opera – poison gas

    20. Hostage Taking & NegotiationsSurviving a Hostage Taking • Most critical times are capture & release • 75% casualties during rescue/release • Remain calm & don’t panic • Avoid unnecessary movement/noise • Don’t argue & show cooperation • Long captivity - exercise, maintain humor - establish routine & empathy

    21. Hostage Taking & NegotiationsOutlook • Will continue to escalate: • Cost-effective extortion & ransom • Publicity - Palestinians, Chechens, etc. • It works, expect in countries with efficient police, trusted by populace • It works, except with repressive govts. • Effective deterrence: • Security & “no-ransom” policy

    22. Hostage Taking & Negotiations QUESTIONS?