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CrJ 132 Chapter Six Hostage Taking & Negotiations. General thoughts on hostage taking Dramatic increase in last decade 2K reported – may be many more Increase in criminal/psychotic episodes Instant media coverage from anywhere Multiple demands for release:

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crj 132 chapter six hostage taking negotiations
CrJ 132 Chapter SixHostage Taking & Negotiations
  • General thoughts on hostage taking
    • Dramatic increase in last decade
      • 2K reported – may be many more
    • Increase in criminal/psychotic episodes
    • Instant media coverage from anywhere
    • Multiple demands for release:
      • Free prisoners – Money – Prison reform – Political change – Political asylum
hostage taking negotiations
Hostage Taking & Negotiations
  • Earlier History
    • Richard the Lionhearted
    • Nazis in Czechoslovakia
  • More Current History
    • Columbia FARC & FLN – Ransom
    • Political Hostages
      • Israeli soldiers - Hamas & Hezbollah
      • Saddam in 1st Iraq War - Human Shields
      • Russian theater & Chechen rebels
hostage taking negotiations modern political hostage taking
Hostage Taking & NegotiationsModern Political Hostage Taking
  • Four Objectives
    • Large sums of ransom $$
    • Media attention & national or international recognition
    • Grassroots community support
    • Weaken free enterprise system by intimidating foreign investment
    • Free political prisoners in swap
hostage taking negotiations typologies of hostage takers
Hostage Taking & NegotiationsTypologies of Hostage Takers
  • Many models -use text- Table 6.1
    • Based on motivation of hostage taker
  • Poland suggests:
    • Psychotic hostage takers
    • Criminal hostage takers
    • Political hostage takers
hostage taking negotiations psychotic
Hostage Taking & NegotiationsPsychotic
  • Mentally deranged – Often suicidal – Angry – Seeks personal recognition – Often estranged from family – Barricaded suspect
  • Usually wants media exposure
  • Has considerable power because he/she is so unpredictable
  • Hard to negotiate with – Irrational
hostage taking negotiations criminal
Hostage Taking & NegotiationsCriminal
  • Fleeing felon – Prison inmate riots – Extortionist kidnapper – Barricaded suspect
  • Generally, most rational & predictable – seek to avoid arrest
  • 60% of all U.S. hostage situations
  • Fleeing crime scene & police arrive
  • Negotiation easier than with psychotic
hostage taking negotiations political hostage taker
Hostage Taking & NegotiationsPolitical Hostage Taker
  • Social protestor, religious zealot, seeking vengeance, air hijackings
  • Reasons may be political, social, religious, or ethnic crusader
  • Strong commitment to ideology
  • Seek publicity & often prisoner release or payment
  • Often irrational, commitment to the “cause” – Preconceived demands & identified limits
hostage taking negotiations why motivation matters
Hostage Taking & NegotiationsWhy Motivation Matters
  • Different motives require different responses
  • Different motives may require different negotiators
  • Different motives may involve different government agencies & ops.
  • Responsive actions driven by motivation -- helps coordinate tactical responses & strategies
hostage taking negotiations general negotiation guidelines
Hostage Taking & NegotiationsGeneral Negotiation Guidelines
  • Play for time - Initial minutes critical
    • Confusion, fear, unexpected response
  • Play for trust
    • Rapport with hostage taker
    • Reduces likelihood of harm to hostages
    • Self-disclosure – Empathy – Good listening – Personal interest in hostage takers problems & feelings – No outright rejection of demands
hostage taking negotiations general negotiation guidelines10
Hostage Taking & Negotiations General Negotiation Guidelines
  • Play for the “Stockholm Syndrome”
    • Unconscious emotional response to the experience of victimization
    • Positive feelings of hostages toward hostage taker
    • Reciprocal, positive feelings of hostage takers toward hostages
    • Negative feelings toward police by hostage takers & hostages
hostage taking negotiations stockholm syndrome
Hostage Taking & Negotiations“Stockholm Syndrome”
  • Not present in all hostage incidents
    • Absence of negative experiences during the incident (no beatings, rapes, etc.)
  • Not present if hostage taker dehumanizes the victim (beheadings)
  • However, with time, a bond of empathy often grows between victim & hostage taker
hostage taking negotiations stockholm syndrome12
Hostage Taking & Negotiations“Stockholm Syndrome”
  • Negotiators foster SS by:
    • Checking on health of hostages
    • Discussing family issues with “Perp”
    • Requesting information on treatment & condition of hostages
  • Stockholm Syndrome often saves lives of hostages & hostage takers
    • Police must resist early application of deadly force
hostage taking negotiations london syndrome
Hostage Taking & NegotiationsLondon Syndrome
  • A hostage or hostages continually challenges the hostage takers
    • Physically or verbally challenge
    • Threatened – “ Just you wait!”
  • Don’t argue with hostage takers, because normally they eliminate you
  • London incident – Achille Lauro incident
hostage taking negotiations guidelines for hostage events
Hostage Taking & NegotiationsGuidelines for Hostage Events
  • Trained negotiator is essential
  • Well-trained, elite response force
  • Media cooperation
  • Clear chain of command
  • Identification of response personnel
  • Identification of hostage takers and numbers, if possible
hostage taking negotiations guidelines for hostage events15
Hostage Taking & NegotiationsGuidelines for Hostage Events
  • Avoid shifts in location if possible
  • Keep relatives away – audience
  • Totally nonnegotiable
    • New weapons, explosives or ammo
    • No exchange of hostages
    • No concessions without something in return
    • No drugs, narcotics or alcohol
hostage taking negotiations negotiator strategies
Hostage Taking & NegotiationsNegotiator Strategies
  • Play for time
  • Tricks are deceit are dangerous tactics – more successful with psychotics & criminals
  • No promises you can’t keep
  • Preferred style is one of mutual concession -compromise, problem solving, and “give & take”
hostage taking negotiations hostage rescue
Hostage Taking & NegotiationsHostage Rescue
  • Question - When to use force?
    • Mixed record of successful results
    • Perfect timing & surprise
    • Hostage lives at risk
    • “Disproportionate Force”
    • Expect media “second-guessing”
hostage taking negotiations u s attempt not successful
Hostage Taking & Negotiations U.S. Attempt - Not Successful
  • Iranian hostages & rescue attempt
    • 53 Americans captured at Embassy – during rescue, location was unknown
    • Multiple services involved – equipment problems & coordination difficulties
    • Ambitious, daring rescue plan
    • 8 rescuers died – bodies left behind
    • Great propaganda victory for Iran
  • No test questions on “Good Guys”
hostage taking negotiations other rescue attempts
Hostage Taking & NegotiationsOther Rescue Attempts
  • Rescue at Entebbe Airport
    • Great Israeli intel & insight & surprise
  • French Aircraft at Marseille - GIA
    • Killed 3, released women & children
    • Attempt to create a “flying bomb”
  • Peruvian Embassy Party - tunnels
  • Russia and the Chechen hostage takers at the Opera – poison gas
hostage taking negotiations surviving a hostage taking
Hostage Taking & NegotiationsSurviving a Hostage Taking
  • Most critical times are capture & release
    • 75% casualties during rescue/release
  • Remain calm & don’t panic
  • Avoid unnecessary movement/noise
  • Don’t argue & show cooperation
  • Long captivity - exercise, maintain humor - establish routine & empathy
hostage taking negotiations outlook
Hostage Taking & NegotiationsOutlook
  • Will continue to escalate:
    • Cost-effective extortion & ransom
    • Publicity - Palestinians, Chechens, etc.
    • It works, expect in countries with efficient police, trusted by populace
    • It works, except with repressive govts.
  • Effective deterrence:
    • Security & “no-ransom” policy