c h a p t e r 14 the ideal gas law and kinetic theory l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
C H A P T E R   14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
C H A P T E R   14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 22

C H A P T E R   14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 230 Views
  • Uploaded on

C H A P T E R   14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory. 14.1  The Mole, Avogadro's Number, and Molecular Mass . Atomic Mass Unit, U.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'C H A P T E R   14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory' - Rita


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
atomic mass unit u
Atomic Mass Unit, U

By international agreement, the reference element is chosen to be the most abundant type of carbon, called carbon-12, and its atomic mass is defined to be exactly twelve atomic mass units, or 12 u.

molecular mass
Molecular Mass

The molecular mass of a molecule is the sum of the atomic masses of its atoms.

For instance, hydrogen and oxygen have atomic masses of 1.007 94 u and 15.9994 u, respectively.

The molecular mass of a water molecule (H2O) is:

2(1.007 94 u) + 15.9994 u = 18.0153 u.

avogadro s number n a
Avogadro's NumberNA

The number of atoms per mole is known as Avogadro's numberNA, after the Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro (1776–1856):

number of moles n
Number of Moles, n

The number of moles n contained in any sample is the number of particles N in the sample divided by the number of particles per moleNA (Avogadro's number):

The number of moles contained in a sample can also be found from its mass.

14 2 the ideal gas law
14.2 The Ideal Gas Law

An ideal gas is an idealized model for real gases that have sufficiently low densities.

the ideal gas law
The Ideal Gas Law

An ideal gas is an idealized model for real gases that have sufficiently low densities.

The condition of low density means that the molecules of the gas are so far apart that they do not interact (except during collisions that are effectively elastic).

the ideal gas law9
The Ideal Gas Law

An ideal gas is an idealized model for real gases that have sufficiently low densities.

The condition of low density means that the molecules of the gas are so far apart that they do not interact (except during collisions that are effectively elastic).

The ideal gas law expresses the relationship between the absolute pressure (P), the Kelvintemperature (T), the volume (V), and the number of moles (n) of the gas.

Where R is the universal gas constant. R = 8.31 J/(mol · K).

the ideal gas law10
The Ideal Gas Law

The constant term R/NA is referred to as Boltzmann's constant, in honor of the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann (1844–1906), and is represented by the symbol k:

PV = NkT

kinetic theory of gases
Kinetic Theory of Gases

The pressure that a gas exerts is caused by the impact of its molecules on the walls of the container.

kinetic theory of gases13
Kinetic Theory of Gases

The pressure that a gas exerts is caused by the impact of its molecules on the walls of the container.

It can be shown that the average translational kinetic energy of a molecule of an ideal gas is given by,

where k is Boltzmann's constant and T is the Kelvin temperature.

derivation of
Derivation of,

Consider a gas molecule colliding elastically with the right wall of the container and rebounding from it.

slide16

The force on one of the molecule,

According to Newton's law of action–reaction, the force on the wall is equal in magnitude to this value, but oppositely directed.

The force exerted on the wall by one molecule,

slide17

If N is the total number of molecules, since these particles move randomly in three dimensions, one-third of them on the average strike the right wall. Therefore, the total force is:

Vrms = root-mean-square velocity.

slide19

Pressure is force per unit area, so the pressure P acting on a wall of area L2 is

Since the volume of the box is V = L3, the equation above can be written as,

example 6 the speed of molecules in air
EXAMPLE 6 The Speed of Molecules in Air

Air is primarily a mixture of nitrogen N2 (molecular mass = 28.0 u) and oxygen O2 (molecular mass = 32.0 u). Assume that each behaves as an ideal gas and determine the rms speed of the nitrogen and oxygen molecules when the temperature of the air is 293 K.