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9. C H A P T E R. Transaction Processing and Enterprise Resource Planning Systems. Goal of Transaction Processing. Provide all the information needed to keep the business running properly and efficiently. Provide timely documents and reports Provide data for other systems

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9

C H A P T E R

Transaction Processing and Enterprise Resource Planning Systems


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Goal of Transaction Processing

  • Provide all the information needed to keep the business running properly and efficiently.

    • Provide timely documents and reports

    • Provide data for other systems

    • Safeguard information


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Characteristics of Transaction Processing

  • One of the first business processes to be computerized

  • Performs routine operations on a regular basis

  • Provides data to other systems

  • High level of detail, accuracy, security

  • Limited support for decision making

  • A lot of input and output; large storage needs

  • Limited sophisticated or complex processing



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The Steps in TPS(Transaction Processing Cycle)

  • Data Collection

  • Data Editing

  • Data Correction

  • Data Manipulation

  • Data Storage

  • Document Production


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An Overview of TPS

  • The input includes basic business transactions

  • The result is that the organization’s records are updated to reflect the status of the operation at the time of the last processed transaction.


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Batch vs. On-Line Transaction Processing

Batch Processing (original)

A system whereby business transactions are accumulated over a period of time and prepared for processing as a single unit or batch.

On-Line Transaction Processing (OLTP)

A system whereby each transaction is processed immediately, without the delay of accumulating transactions into a batch. Always current.


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Transaction Processing CycleData Collection

  • Begins with a transaction (e.g. an order)

  • Manual or automated

    • Source Data Automation

      (e.g. bar code scanners)

  • Examples of data collection?


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Transaction Processing CycleData Editing

  • Validity and completeness


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Transaction Processing CycleData Correction

  • Feedback regarding errors

  • Opportunity to re-enter


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Transaction Processing CycleData Manipulation

  • Performing calculations

    • Classifying

    • Sorting

    • Summarizing


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Transaction Processing CycleData Storage

  • Updating databases

    • An output of TPS

    • Input to all other systems


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Transaction Processing CycleDocument Production

  • Paychecks

  • Invoices

  • Packing slips

  • etc.


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Control Issues

  • Business Resumption Planning

    • Identify threats

  • Disaster Recovery

    • Identify solutions

      • Backups

      • Hot sites

      • Cold sites

  • System Audits

    • Create an audit trail


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Traditional TPS Applications

  • Order Processing

  • Purchasing

  • Accounting


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Order Processing Support Systems

  • Order Entry

    • Captures the data

    • Suggests substitute, related, or “add-on” items

  • Sales Configuration

    • Ensures that products and services ordered will work together to accomplish customer’s objectives

    • Suggests options and eliminates mistakes


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Order Processing Support Systems

  • Shipment Planning

    • Determines which open orders will be filled and from which location they will be shipped and by what means.

    • Prepares a pick list

  • Shipment Execution

    • Coordinates and confirms the outflow of all products and goods from the organization


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Order Processing Support Systems

  • Inventory Control

    • Updates the computerized inventory records to reflect the exact quantity on hand of each stock keeping unit.

    • Minimizes cash tied up in inventory

    • Often bar-coded (www.milk.com/barcode)

    • Just as important for service industries (e.g. airlines)


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Order Processing Support Systems

  • Invoicing

    • Generates customer invoices based on records received from the shipment execution TPS

  • Customer Interaction

    • Monitors and tracks each customer interaction with the company.

      • Contact Management


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Order Processing Support Systems

  • Routing

    • Determines the best way to get goods and products from one location to another.

  • Tracking (UPS, FedEx)

  • Scheduling

    • Determines the best time to deliver goods and services.


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What is Enterprise Resource Planning?

  • A collection of software packages, which ties all of an enterprise's various functions into a cohesive database. These packages affect everything from order capture to accounting and procurement to warehousing.

  • Employees enter information only once and that information is then available to all systems company-wide.

  • This means everyone in the company can make decisions based on accurate, real-time information.


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For Example…

  • The sales force enters an order on a computer, and the transaction propagates through the entire company.

  • Inventory lists and parts supplies are updated automatically, worldwide.

  • The ERP system determines whether the product should come from current finished goods in a warehouse, work in process, scheduled production, or new production….


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For Example, cont’d.

  • Production schedules and balance sheets will reflect the changes.

  • Best of all, every employee has only the information necessary for the job at hand…

    • Salespeople can promise firm delivery dates

    • Managers can gauge almost immediately the effects of decisions affecting credit terms, discounts, inventory, or supply-chain management.


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Enterprise Resource Planning

  • Real-time monitoring of business functions, permits timely analysis of…

    • Quality

    • Availability

    • Customer satisfaction

    • Performance

    • Profitability


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ERP Advantages

  • Replace dozens of legacy applications with one integrated set

  • Ensures best business practices

  • Provides improved access to integrated, company-wide data

  • Simplifies and standardizes technology infrastructure


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ERP Disadvantages

  • Expensive, disruptive, and time-consuming

  • May require dramatic changes in work processes

  • Difficult to integrate with other systems

  • Wedded to one vendor

  • Necessitates consultants


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