QUIT 25 C H A P T E R The Conservative Tide CHAPTER OBJECTIVE INTERACT WITH HISTORY TIME LINE A Conservative Movement Emerges 1 SECTION Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush 2 SECTION GRAPH Social Concerns of the 1980s 3 SECTION Foreign Policy After the Cold War 4 SECTION MAP VISUAL SUMMARY
CHAPTER OBJECTIVE HOME 25 C H A P T E R The Conservative Tide To understand the political and social events of the 1980s and early 1990s
HOME 25 C H A P T E R The Conservative Tide I N T E R A C T W I T H H I S T O R Y It is the autumn of 1980. You are a campaign manager for Republican presidential candidate, Ronald Reagan, former film star and past governor of California. Reagan must defeat President Jimmy Carter, who has lost support. Carter has failed to bring home the hostages in Iran and to revive the economy. Reagan, an optimist, pledges to do both. He also plans to cut taxes and cut back on government programs. What campaign slogan will you create? Examine the Issues • What qualities in your candidate will win support? • What issues are important? • How can you present Reagan as a winner?
TIME LINE 1980Ronald Reagan is elected president. 1980Zimbabwe claims independence. 1982Great Britain and Argentina go to war over the Falkland Islands. 1982Equal Rights Amendment fails to win ratification. 1984South African Bishop Desmond Tutu receives the Nobel Peace Prize. 1984President Reagan is reelected. HOME 25 C H A P T E R The Conservative Tide The United States The World 1981Sandra Day O’Connor becomes the first woman appointed to the Supreme Court. 1985The Soviet Union suffers a disastrous accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. 1986Iran arms deal is revealed. continued . . .
TIME LINE 1988George Bush is elected president. Reverend Jesse Jackson runs for the Democratic presidential nomination. 1989The Chinese government kills student protesters in Tiananmen Square. Germans dismantle the Berlin Wall. 1991Soviet Union breaks apart. 1991Persian Gulf War breaks out. HOME 25 C H A P T E R The Conservative Tide The United States The World 1987President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev sign the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty.
1 S E C T I O N A Conservative Movement Emerges HOME KEY IDEA The new conservatism begins with the defeat of Barry Goldwater in 1964 and triumphs with the election of Ronald Reagan in 1980. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
1 S E C T I O N A Conservative Movement Emerges •entitlement program •affirmative action •Ronald Reagan •New Right •Moral Majority •reverse discrimination •conservative coalition HOME OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW In the early 21st century, conservative views strongly influenced both major political parties. Conservatism reached a high point with the election in 1980 of President Ronald Reagan and Vice-President George Bush. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
1 S E C T I O N A Conservative Movement Emerges ASSESSMENT HOME 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List eight conservative issues. Reduce the size of the federal government End affirmative action Reduce entitlement programs End busing Conservative Issues Stop the regulation ofguns Prayer in school Eliminate legal abortions Defeat the ERA continued . . .
1 S E C T I O N A Conservative Movement Emerges ASSESSMENT HOME 2. How did the leaders of the conservative movement of the 1980s want to change government? Think About: •the difference between the conservative view of government and the liberal view •the groups that made up the conservative coalition •conservatives’ attitudes toward existing government programs ANSWER Conservatives wanted to reduce the size of federal government; lower taxes; end gun control, affirmative action, and busing; increase defense spending; and promote traditional family values. continued . . .
1 S E C T I O N A Conservative Movement Emerges ASSESSMENT HOME 3. What role did the Moral Majority play in the conservative movement of the 1970s and early 1980s? ANSWER The Moral Majority represented a religious revival that stressed a literal interpretation of the Bible and argued for restoration of traditional values. continued . . .
1 S E C T I O N A Conservative Movement Emerges ASSESSMENT HOME 4. What personal qualities in Ronald Reagan helped him to win election as president in 1980? ANSWER Reagan, known as the Great Communicator, had the ability to simplify issues and offer clear-cut answers. End of Section 1
2 S E C T I O N Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush HOME GRAPH KEY IDEA President Reagan puts in place conservative policies that affect the nation’s budget and the federal government. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
2 S E C T I O N •supply-side economics •Sandra Day O’Connor •Geraldine Ferraro •deregulation •Reaganomics •George Bush •Environmental Protection Agency •Strategic Defense Initiative HOME GRAPH Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW Presidents Reagan and Bush pursued a conservative agenda that included tax cuts, budget cuts, and increased defense spending. The conservative views of Reagan and Bush created policies and priorities that affect government spending and budgeting today. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
ASSESSMENT HOME GRAPH 2 S E C T I O N Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Define “Reaganomics,” and then list its short-term and long-term effects. DEFINITION OF REGANOMICS Policy advocating tax cuts to bolster private investments, leading to increased national supply of goods and services. Short-Term Effects Falling interest rates, decreased inflation, economic growth Long-Term Effects Increased national debt, budget deficit, trade imbalances, higher taxes continued . . .
2 S E C T I O N ASSESSMENT HOME GRAPH Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush 2. Why did President Reagan and President Bush think it was important to appoint conservative justices to the Supreme Court? ANSWER The Supreme Court decides which laws are constitutional. Both Reagan and Bush had conservative agendas and wanted the Supreme Court to support those agendas. continued . . .
2 S E C T I O N ASSESSMENT HOME GRAPH Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush 3. In your opinion was Reagan’s first term a success? Think About: •how his tax cuts impacted the rich and the poor •the economy •the federal budget ANSWER Reagan’s first term was a mix of success and failure—stopped the growth of inflation but the federal deficit rose. continued . . .
2 S E C T I O N ASSESSMENT HOME GRAPH Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush 4. Read the following excerpt from Ronald Reagan’s speech at the 1992 Republican Convention. “ We mustn’t forget . . . the very different America that existed just 12 years ago; an America with 21 percent interest rates and . . . double-digit inflation; an America where mortgage payments doubled, paychecks plunged, and motorists sat in gas lines; an America whose leaders told us . . . that what we really needed was another good dose of government control and higher taxes.” What picture did Reagan paint of the Carter administration? ANSWER That high interest rates, high inflation, gas lines, and too much government marked Carter’s administration. End of Section 2
3 S E C T I O N Social Concerns of the 1980s HOME KEY IDEA Social issues of many kinds continue to concern the nation during the conservative backlash. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
3 S E C T I O N Social Concerns of the 1980s •L. Douglas Wilder •Lauro Cavazos •pay equity •Jesse Jackson •AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) •Antonia Coello Novello HOME OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW Beneath the surge of prosperity that marked the conservative era of the 1980s lay serious social problems. Issues involving health care, education, civil rights, and equal rights for women continue to challenge American society. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
3 S E C T I O N Social Concerns of the 1980s ASSESSMENT HOME 1. List several of the social problems of the Reagan and Bush years and how the government responded to them. Social Problems Government Response Abortion Supreme Court restrictions Drug use “Just say No!” campaign Education America 2000 education initiative Women’s rights Day care budget cuts; pay equity in some states Equal rights for minorities Supreme Court reversal of affirmative-action decision continued . . .
3 S E C T I O N Social Concerns of the 1980s ASSESSMENT HOME 2. How might improvements in the educational system help solve other social problems? Think About: •the impact education might have on health-related problems •the impact that education might have on urban problems •the impact that education might have on unemployment ANSWER Education might help discourage unsafe sex and drug use. Education would lead to future job opportunities and lower unemployment rates. continued . . .
3 S E C T I O N Social Concerns of the 1980s ASSESSMENT HOME 3. Compare the political gains and losses experienced by various groups during the Reagan and Bush administrations. ANSWER More jobs and political opportunities for women and minorities; Native Americans gained support for gambling casinos on their native lands; Asian Americans were the second fastest-growing minority population; several states outlawed anti-gay discrimination. continued . . .
3 S E C T I O N Social Concerns of the 1980s ASSESSMENT HOME 4. Why might a widening gap between the richest and poorest citizens of a country be a cause for concern about that country’s future? ANSWER A widening economic gap could lead to a permanently divided society. End of Section 3
4 S E C T I O N Foreign Policy After the Cold War HOME MAP KEY IDEA Major changes throughout the world have a great impact on the direction of U.S. foreign policy. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
4 S E C T I O N Foreign Policy After the Cold War •INF Treaty •Tiananmen Square •Sandinistas •glasnost •Contras •perestroika •Operation Desert Storm •Mikhail Gorbachev HOME MAP OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW The end of the Cold War, marked by the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, led to a redirection of many U.S. goals and policies. After the Cold War, the United States provided and continues to provide substantial economic support to the new capitalistic and democratic nations. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
4 S E C T I O N Foreign Policy After the Cold War ASSESSMENT HOME MAP 1. Explain U.S. foreign policy in Europe, in Central America and the Caribbean, and in the Middle East. U.S. Foreign Policy Europe INF Treaty; START II Pact; Cold War ends Central America and Caribbean Cut aid to Sandinistas; send aid to Contras; invasion of Grenada Middle East Iran-Contra affair; Operation Desert Storm continued . . .
4 S E C T I O N Foreign Policy After the Cold War ASSESSMENT HOME MAP 2. What factors caused the end of the Cold War? Think About: •events in the Soviet Union •events in Germany and Eastern Europe •how U.S. leaders responded to those events ANSWER Collapse of Soviet economy, Gorbachev’s reforms in the Soviet Union, unification of East and West Germany continued . . .
4 S E C T I O N Foreign Policy After the Cold War ASSESSMENT HOME MAP 3. What factors do you think determined whether or not the United States intervened militarily in other nations? ANSWER The United States intervened when essential United States interests and assets—American lives, democracy, oil—were at stake. continued . . .
4 S E C T I O N Foreign Policy After the Cold War ASSESSMENT HOME MAP 4. Is it possible for an authoritarian government to make economic reforms without also making political reforms? ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Yes: China, for example No: Soviet Union, for example End of Section 4