TECHNOLOGY ENHANCED LEARNING AND HIGHER EDUCATION OVER EDUCATION GRID K.R. Srivathsan, IGNOU email@example.com Haryana Secretariat, Chandigarh March 29, 2009
Aug. 2008 at IIT Guwahati, Dr. Manmohan Singh said • “We are one of the youngest nations and, according to observers, India has the potential to create over 500 million trained people by 2022 which is over a fourth of the global workforce. The big opportunity for India would come from an education revolution that we must undertake as our most important national endeavor.” • The World of Education is undergoing a rapid and quiet transformation: How do we in India take advantage of this and synthesize a new framework of providing It is time to move from talks to action in deploying and using e-Learning. E-Learning – From talks to action
SAD STATE OF OUR EDUCATION • Education (higher/tertiary) reduced to teaching classes against Board/university exams. • No agility in syllabus and students are ‘programmed’ like Artificial Intelligence Systems to ‘answer’ questions! • University education no longer LEARNING CENTRIC. Students tutored for ‘contrived’ university examinations. Aim at securing high pass percentages, not promoting learning and scholarship. • Good teachers have little say. ‘Teaching’ to prepare studnts for exams removes teacher from engaging students in Learning Activities • Education not connected with developments – be they in the scientific or socioeconomic sense. India’s Int’l Math Olympiad rank fell from 25th in 2007 to 31st in 2008. China is 1st, South Korea 2nd Why?
A Shared Vision for Education • Bill Readings (Harvard) in his ‘University in Ruins’: “The question posed to the University is thus not how to turn the institution into a haven for Thought but how to think in an institution whose development tends to make Thought more and more difficult, less and less necessary (p. 175).” • We need a vision that is enlightening, socioeconomically integrated into development and empowering. “QUALITY EDUCATION TO ALL, INDEPENDENT OF GEOGRAPHY.” “ENABLE, EDUCATE AND EMPOWER EVERY CITIZEN AND COMMUNITY THROUGH KNOWLEDGE.” Most importantly connect education to community empowerment and developments – socioeconomic as well as promoting values and scholarship.
Towards practicing e-learning • For over 10(20?) years we talk of e-learning. • Plenty of Technology: Laptops and Netbooks, High cap thumb drives, IP-TV, iPods, iPhones, GPRS, 3G, Broadband, Satellite, Virtualization, Green IT, etc. • Whole world of new Internet services/applications: Google & ever improving search engines, Open Source systems, LMS, SCIENTIFIC DATABASES, Open Content, Open Access Publishing, e-Books, … • Google’s Slogan: “My other computer is a Datacentre”. • Increasing reach and Affordability. Time to move ahead from CONNECTIVITY &CONTENT to formal systems of Tech Assisted Learning, Teaching And Evaluation (TELTE) Quality Assured Instruction.
Global Evolution in E-Learning • 1970s: Tutored Video Instruction by James Gibbons, Stanford. Satellite Instructional Television EXpt. (SITE) in India by Vikram Sarabhai / ISRO. • 80s: More Television, Computer Based Training (CBT), then CDs, Evolution of Internet. • Mid 90s: WWW and after: Sharing and Collaboration. Library Automation, Digitization. • Late 1990s: Three crucial developments: Learning Management Systems – WebCT by M. Goldberg of UBC, Group Collaboration and Document Management Systems, Rapid growth of websites. • In India, increasing CD based content production.
Growth of TV and Satellite • IGNOU established the TV broadcast with phone-in interactions from its studios since late 1990s. • Prof. AK Ray (IIT Delhi, later IIT Kgp.) commences classroom video recording of lectures Later led to NPTEL video content generation. • Use of Web-CT and Low-cost video with multimedia integration and asynchronous discussion forums at IIT Kanpur Educational Tech Services Lab. • Edusat launched in 2003. IGNOU and few limited universities (Anna, VTU, AVV) adopted – but little impact in quality of education lessons to learnas compared to its value in Telemedicine.
2001 and after • Inflibnet, UGC Infonet, e-Journals subscriptions and Online content mostly from outside India. • Some content digitization projects, IT literacy (wrongly directed) training. • After 2004 – Growth of Mobile and now Mobile Applications. • National Program on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL) – proposed and executed by the IITs/IISc, funded by MHRD – first major initiative in educationally usable structured content. • Scattered content initiatives, induction of e-learning platforms – Black Board, Web-CT, Acado, etc. • Some office automation/ERP solutions.
Education Grid over Regional Broadband/ ERNET or Internet Education Grid from IITK to IIITM-K Education Grid is a suite of systems and collaborative processes over a network of institutions Resource Centre 3 Scientific Portals College 2 College 1 College 3 Communication Gateway & Resource Centre National Education Grid over Broadband ERNET/Internet (& EDUSAT?) Network Resource Centre 2 Computational Servers VISTA Programs Coordination Centre College n College 4 Resource Centre 1 E-Learning
Malcolm Baldridge Parameters for Performance Excellence in Education • Visionary Leadership • Learning-centred Education • Organizational and personal learning • Valuing faculty, staff and partners • Agility • Focus on the future • Managing for innovation • Management by fact • Public responsibility and citizenship • Focus on results and creating value • Systems perspective Where are our Institutions, Universities and Colleges ? How do we build a TELT Framework to support excellence?
Leverage on Core Strengths of IGNOU • IGNOU practices a robust system of generating printed Self Learning Materials (SLMs) for the learners. • SLMs are pedagogically structured, authored by eminent experts. • IGNOU’s SLMs in various courses are globally respected and also used in several open distance education programs run by the state open universities and others. • Regional Centres of IGNOU provide critical logistics support for Study Centres and supporting them for conducting the contact classes and examinations. IGNOU now faces the challenge of fitting the above system and its best practices in the Internet era.
Prof. Vijay Gupta’s Observations • The antiquated affiliation university setup, wherein the person designing the course is quite different from person teaching it, who again is not the one examining the students. • The affiliation university set-up has completely eroded the dignity of a teacher. A teacher in an affiliated college today is one of the most pathetic figures imaginable. He does not have any control on what he teaches. He does not have any control on what a student learns, because what a student learns is controlled totally by what he is examined on. An external examination system suffocates any initiatives by the teacher in improving the course or its delivery. • A very large portion of our engineering education establishment is driven now by purely short-sighted commercial considerations. • An almost complete absence of faculty with any passion for teaching. In fact, most have never seen what a good teacher can do to excite students. Today, teaching is seen as the last choice of professions by graduating students.
Global Developments 2001+ • Mostly driven by North America and Europe. • MIT Open Courseware – spreading to several universities; NPTEL from India making global impact in Engg. Education. • Open Access Publishing Movement: Large number of refereed open journals; visit Open J-Gate. • University Profs posting their content, major projects like the SOS Maths, Scientific Databases – Genomic, Google Earth, Wikimapia, Google Sky, Atmospheric, GPS related, Different area specific, and more. • Large number of area-specific Discussion Forums, blogging,.. • Major universities establishing e-Learning as routine Infrastructure, e.g., NUS Integrated Virtual Learning Environment, Stanford Centre for Professional Development, etc. E-Learning support is common.
Global Developments 2001+ Contd. • Growth of Linux and Open Solaris, MySQL, PostGre and PostGIS, Sun’s Datagrid, Growing Open Source Movement. • Services Oriented Architecture, Open Standards in many domains, particularly Data Standards. • Wikipedia, Wikiversity, Wikieducator, K-12 movement, Curriki.org, Open Source Movement; Open Knowledge Initiatives. • Gaming, Secondlife.com, Virtual Reality, International collaborations in Supercomputing Applications • Major universities establishing e-Learning as routine Infrastructure, e.g., NUS Integrated Virtual Learning Environment, Stanford Centre for Professional Development, • CMU’s Online Learning Initiative; Mexico’s Technologico de Monterrey Successful as open technical education.
Recall Kerala Education Grid Networkof Education Servers across colleges Resource Centresin premier institutions. Develop and maintainpedagogically sound refereed coursewarein identified subjects. Deploy courseware oversubject specific Course Knowledge and Collaboration Spacein each subject over the network of Servers. Introduce anIT facilitation layer in the University/ Higher Education System. Governed by quality management of Content Development and Teacher Training Processes.
Leverage on Core Strengths of IGNOU • IGNOU practices a robust system of generating printed Self Learning Materials (SLMs) for the learners. • SLMs are pedagogically structured, authored by experts. • IGNOU’s SLMs in various courses are globally respected and also used in several open distance education programs run by the state open universities and others. • Regional Centres of IGNOU provide critical logistics support for Study Centres and supporting them for conducting the contact classes and examinations. IGNOU now faces the challenge of upgrading the above system and its best practices in the Internet era.
TOWARDS OPEN DISTRIBUTED TECHNOLOGY ENHANCEDLEARNING (ODTEL) • Present system: Syllabus, SLMs, textbook, classes, tutorials, centralized exams and evaluation, marks and grades to be changed to Learning - Centered system • TEL Processes should aim Unit Perfection Requirements (like Fred Keller’s system) • How do we build a Learning Centered System of Education that leverages upon the state-of-the- art ICT systems and TEL Processes? • At IGNOU, we are synthesizing the ‘Open Distributed Technology Enhanced Learning’, or, ODTEL Framework.
Set Instructional objectivesEvaluate against Instructional Objectives Final Grade 2. Learning Activities, Interactions, Exercises & Practice 4. Exams & Evaluation + _ 3. Self Test 1.Instruction Delivery J + Assessment Teacher – Learner Involvement in all stages 4. Feedback to learners IGNOU’s ODTEL FRAMEWORK • Challenge: How do we use varieties of components/ systems of e-learning in each of above components. • Key issue: To maximize quality of instruction as measured by the depth of understanding and proficiency imparted as per the objectives set.
EDUCATION GRID GATEWAY SYSTEM for IGNOU’s Regional Centres and Study Centres College Gateway ERP, Mail, Security Video-on Demand Wiki & Web Server Router, Firewall NAS, Archive & Crash Recovery MOODLE LMS DNS, Proxy, NW Management Online Library E-Publications LAN / WiFi Switches EGGS* IP/VPN, Internet * EGGS May be hosted by 3rd Party like RailTel • Low cost EGGS to be enhanced in each Study Centre and Regional Centre. RC/SC LAN & WiFi Access Web Studio, Content Management, Training Facilities
Tier-3: Content Varieties & Management … • IGNOU 2010+: SLM eSLM or eBooks, MPDD eMPDD. • Improved eGyankosh, Indexed, abstracted, Searchable, linking thru http and RSS Feeds, Open discussion forum, etc. • NPTEL Type Recorded Video Lectures – full suites of ~ 40 lectures per course most viewed Indian YouTube site.Visit: www.youtube.com/iit • Web Content: Like NPTEL or Open Courseware, Wikiversity, Curriki.org, etc.: http://nptel.iitm.ac.in • IGNOU is a member of NPTEL Phase-2 approved by MHRD. • NPTEL Videos: NPTEL RVLs are systematically delivered and recorded video lectures ~ 40 lectures per course - against a syllabus. Capacity to link relevant open content into a course.
2. IGNOU Course Management Group (CMG) Tier-4: Setting the stage for Quality ODL: IGNOU Open Course Guide System Instruction Management Cycles 4. Colleges & Study Centres Content Management Cycles Students & Teachers 24 X7 access 1.SLMs,RVLs, Open Web Content 3. CMG to develop & Deploy IGNOU Open Course Guide (IOCG)
Tier-4: IGNOU Open Course Guide Course Home Page About the Course, Prerequisites, Syllabus Instructions to SCs, Tutors Course Objectives Course Evaluation approach Course Support and Counseling details. Sequence of Learning Modules Course Concept Map with links to Learning Modules Recommended Text Books, References, Web References Course Calendar Instruction Team and Contact details IOCG is implemented in IGNOU using Mediawiki
Tier-4: SAMPLE IOCG MODULE Module Topic Motivational/anecdotal content Instructional Objectives Learning Activities Sequencing: RVL to be played, textbook sections, recommended problem set, practice, experiments, etc. LMS used for all asynchronous Interactions and directives to students. Guidance for Tutorial Monitored Self test as help for students. Module test (part of continuous evaluation). • Mid-term and end term tests conducted. • Computer Assisted Evaluation methods may be used.
IOCG Over Wiki Systems of LMS, VoD, eGyankosh, E-Publishing, Forums, Blogs, etc. IOCG Technology: A Canonical Course Management System Learners Distributed Over Geography Course and Instruction Management Team IOCG runs like a Course Management Program Script
IOCG as Formal TEL Academic System • Course Management Group (CMG) formally appointed by the concerned School. • CMG Prepares the IGNOU OPEN COURSE GUIDE (IOCG) – A Wiki based System developed by IGNOU. • Relevant RVLs preloaded in Study Centre server and also distributed to registered students in a course. • IOCG aligns specified Open Content with course activities. • IOCG has built-in Course Calendar of learning and assessment activities for the entire semester • CMG to train and orient teachers (Academic Counselors) and tutors in Study Centres on IOCG supported Instruction. • Students interact with CMG, and in the open through Discussion Forums supported by SMS Alerts System.
Why IOCG Canonical? • ‘Canonical’ refers to concepts that have a kind of uniqueness or naturalness, and are "independent of coordinates." • An example: A Browser is canonical as an interface between user and his/her interactions with the diverse information and services in the Internet. • The IOCG System is canonical in the sense its structure is quite simple – at its core it is a Wiki – and it allows diverse pedagogies to be built over it. • Any pedagogic option may be built as statements and declarations of links to activities in the IOCG. • IOCG guides and coordinates the instruction team, learners and those who manage the course related resources and information.
Foundations, Concepts, Contextual Skills Quality Instruction By Teachers Quality Ambience & Processes Self-development Responsibility, Accountability Professional Competence, Maturity TELT Quality Resources Quality Efforts by Students Laying the Basis For Quality Education • To make our graduates EMPLOYABLE. • To be PRODUCTIVE ON THE JOB and in LIFE. • To observe REAL WORLD PROBLEMS, abstract the issues and apply what they have learnt and their innate sense to solve them. ‘The End of Education is Character.’ – Sai Baba
E X P L I C I T T A C I T The Challenge of Immersing Students in Quality Learning Environment • At the end of a learning effort, a Learner should be able to say ‘I understand’ Add to his/her Tacit capabilities. Codified Knowledge and Processes accessible over the net, paper… Global networked Information and computational base People’s Competencies, Communications, Feelings, Intuitions, Social interactions, Judgment, Guestimation, People’s Real World
Tacit Explicit Socialize Externalize Tacit Combinational Thinking Explicit Internalize Tier-3&4: IOCG Categories of Learning Activities Based Upon Tacit – Explicit Interplay • Adapt Nonaka’s four types of Learning Activities: Quality Learning with Learning Ambience nurtures above SECI Innovations Driven Learning Environment (IDLE). • CMG to build the IOCG rich with pointers to case studies, learning activities, multimedia illustrations, real world situations, term papers, projects and field work. • Use LMS for course events management, interactions, discussion forums, assessment activities & for feedback to students.
Tier-5: Tutored Video Instruction • Tutored Video Instruction (TVI) was introduced by Prof. J. Gibbons, Stanford University in 1970s. • TVI involves recording video lectures of class and given to students (in ‘distance’ mode) to play and listen. They need not attend the routine lectures. • Weekly contact, or Interaction Classes held for tutorials, small tests, answering common doubts (as expressed in a discussion forum), conducting continuous evaluation exercises, motivational topics, case studies and problem solving, etc. • Interaction classes may be more extended than tutorials. • TVI changes ‘Distance Learning’ and classroom learning to COLLABORATIVE LEARNING. • Studies show performance of students as a whole increases by ~ 0.6σ shift in the mean of the class.
Tier –5: Counsellors/Teachers Guided by IOCG and Augmented by CMG Support 2. IGNOU Course Management Group (CMG) Instruction Management Cycles 4. Study Centres & Colleges Content Management Cycles Students & teachers 24X7 access 1.RVLs, & Open Content 3. IGNOU Online Study Guide (IOCG)
IOCG (Back) IOCG (Front) Towards ‘Smart’ IOCG from ACIIL Regional Services Support for Study Centres SMS Alerts & M-Learn support for Students, CMG, & Instruction Team eGyankosh & Multimedia Content on Demand Discussion Forums, LMS & Collaboration Education & IT Services (EITS) Web Resources Support
IGNOU Education and IT Services (EITS) as ‘Back Office’ to Support Course Communities Course Management Group Teachers & Students in the subject IOCG anchored Course Community Capacity Building & Linkages to R&D, Communities & Industry Subject related Library, e-Journals and open access publications EITS • EITS is operated under ACIIL at IGNOU – Delhi by integrating IGNOU’s existing core services.
IGNOU Open Course Guide (IOCG) Discussion Forums, Online Calendar and Alert Systems TV & Webinar Sessions Community Radio Sessions TV & Webinar Sessions Community Radio Sessions TV & Webinar Sessions Community Radio Sessions File/Assignments U/D Query Management System Counsellors Support & Web Mentoring System Online Library and Multimedia Publishing System Regional/Study Centres Support System Establishing Education Technology and Information Services
IOCG Wikis & Forums constitute Course Portals Portals with Course Wikis, to support courses managed by universities/ colleges eGyankosh, Online Library, Open Publishing Open Global Content Formal Courses Course Management Groups Education Grid Systems & ETS IOCG Systems & Forums Each Affiliating University may establish Course Portals based upon NPTEL and other open/local content Course Portals may be built and managed over time. Universities & Institutions Web Resources Subject Community & Students
IOCG Supported ODL over Cloud Computing Universities Research Communities Colleges LEARNERS INTERNET STUDY CENTRES Content RCs, Other Institutions Open Learning & Collaborations Web-services 2.0 Scientific Databases Industries IOCG Web Server Students & Resources Databases Linked & Computational Resources, Scientific Databases Scientific Databases Web Services Brokering & Authentication Services Digital Library, Open Access Publications, E-Learning Content Repositories IOCG Requires several Systems
RC 2010+ Radio, TV & Community Services Regional Programs and Services Video, Audio and Web Studios Tech Enhanced Study Centre Present RC functions made smarter Regional Centres 2010+ • Need to look much beyond present roles and functions of RCs. RCs given functional autonomy. • RCs to work jointly with State/Regional Organizations through joint MOU. • Need for Haryana Govt. to remove obstacles for collaboration between the State’s Institutions and IGNOU.
((( Phone Integrated Multi-modal Collaborative Educational Technology Services 2 4 Learners Anywhere 3 1 6 5 IGNOU Kiosk/CSC access Schools & Centres Internet Accessed Services TV B A C Agriculture, Health, … IOSG Internet & ETIS 7 D Access State’s Colleges Institutions F E Call Centre 8 9
E R N E T STPI IGNOU Education Grid (IEG) IGNOU/Universities/Institutions Open Study Guide & Web Collaboration Services Education Grid Gateway Systems Study Centres University College Experts, Mentors * * Tier–5: Instruction/Evaluation Management Space (Colleges, Study Centers) Tier-4: Content Alignment & Capacity Building (AU) R A I L T E L Academic Management Tier–3: Content/Web Resources (IGNOU, NPTEL, …) Tier-2: Systems, Applications (Over Clouds and LAN) Managed Services Tier-1: ICT Infrastructure (RailTel, TelCos, STPI, NKN)
E-Learning must be built over collaborations • Best value from Technology Enhanced Learning will come from promoting and managing subject specific web-communities that support teachers and learners. • Online Study Guides networked through EGGS enable such collaborations. • Need to change education to be Teacher and Learner Centric. • Affiliating University should do the Enabling and Empowering Roles. • Colleges – their teachers should do the education and evaluation roles without hindrance from affilitating university. Need to introduce Proficiency Certification programs for Teachers IGNOU’s initiatives in NPTEL.
“ The only irreplaceable capital an organization possesses is the knowledge and the ability of its people. The productivity of that capital depends on how effectively people share their competence with those who can use it.” - Andrew Carnegie 19th Century
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First to IIITM-K for the years spent experimenting with diverse systems of eLearning, the Education Grid, KISSAN-Kerala and others. Second to all those colleagues at IIITM-K, specifically Dr. Venkatesh, Shri Radhakrishnan, Shri Ajith Kumar, Shri Pradeep Kumar, Dr. Dinesh, Shri Arvind Mohan, Shri David Mathews, and several others. Third to Vice Chancellor and Board of IGNOU and now Shri Sukan Kole, Ms. Divya Raj, Shri Rejith. R, Shri Sanjay Mishra, Dr. VSP Srivastava and others for supporting the ongoing initiatives.
TOGETHER EVERYONE ACHIEVES MORE Thank You