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Distance Education and Instructional Technology in Higher Education Presented by Sue Spahn spahn@nsu.nova.edu Morning Agenda What Is Your Definition of Distance Education? Your Responses Please… Definitions of Distance Education

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Distance Education and Instructional Technology in Higher Education

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distance education and instructional technology in higher education

Distance Education and Instructional Technology in Higher Education

Presented by

Sue Spahn


definitions of distance education
Definitions of Distance Education
  • Learning from, with, or by any experience that includes human and non human resources, geographically distant or close.” (Schrum, 2002)
  • Learning that takes place between instructor and learner separated by place and time.” (Moore, 1988)
  • Distance education isplannedlearning that normally occurs in adifferent place from teachingand as a result requires:
    • special techniques of course design
    • special instructional techniques
    • special methods or communication by electronic and other technology
    • as well as special organizational and administrative arrangements.” (Moore, Kearsley, 1996)

DISTANCE EDUCATION OFFERINGS AND ENROLLMENT: Percentage of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary institutions offering distance education courses or planning to offer them within the next 3 years of the survey and total course enrollments, by type of institution: 1997–98 and 2000–01



Distance-Education Course Enrollment Nearly Doubled"Distance education is both a sign of the times and a harbinger on the future delivery of education services." By News Story - July 2003

  • Among all two and four-year institutions in 2000-2001, 19 % had degree or certificate programs designed to be completed totally through distance education.
  • The Internet was most often used as a primary mode of instructional delivery

Converge - http://www.centerdigitaled.com/converge/?pg=magstory&id=61138

e learning
  • global education and training market to be worth roughly $2 trillion
  • e-learning sector will grow from $10.3 billion in 2002 to $83.1 billion in 2006, and eventually swelling to over $212 billion by 2011
  • 2002 -one-third of K-12 schools are already offering some distance learning programs for their students

Source: Clickz Stats - Education


distance education system model
Distance Education System Model
  • Sources
  • Design
  • Delivery
  • Interaction
  • Learning Environment
sources what are the sources of information
SourcesWhat Are the Sources of Information?
  • Organizational needs
    • Curriculum
    • Discipline content
  • Theory/History
    • Teaching practices
    • Institutional history
  • Philosophy
    • Mission statement
    • Value placed on DE
  • Student needs
    • Demographics
    • Flexibility
  • Instructional Design
    • SME’s (Subject Matter Experts)
    • Instructional designers
  • Media
    • Experts in specific media
  • Program
    • Sequential, in/out anytime, one shot
  • Evaluation
    • Feedback to whom?
delivery system
Delivery System
  • Print
  • Radio – preferred immediately before WWII
  • TV and Programmed Instruction – 60’s
  • CBI – 70’s
  • Audio Conferencing – 80’s
  • Compressed Video Conferencing and Satellite downloading – 90’s
  • Internet-2000
  • IP conferencing - 2004
  • Instructors
  • Tutors
  • Counselors
  • Administrative Staff
  • Other students
learning environment
Learning Environment
  • Workplace
  • Home
  • Classroom
  • Learning Center
is there a need for de program needs analysis
Is there a need for DE Program? Needs analysis


  • Student population
    • Maturity - readiness for learning at a distance
    • Distances from campus
    • Time available: working days, learn nights, etc.
  • Is physical plant an issue?
    • Need for classroom space
    • Anticipated growth
  • What else should be included with the needs analysis?
resources what are your present resources
Resources What are your present resources?


  • Present …
    • Student support: Admissions, Registrar, Academic advisement, Financial Aid
    • Information Technology
    • Media department: printed materials such as study guides, graphics department, video productions
    • Library Services: Research and Reference materials, Book distribution, others.
    • Instructional support: faculty training & development, instructional designers
student support systems
Student Support Systems


  • Admissions
  • Registrar
  • Financial Aid
  • Bursar
  • Academic advisement

To get a good idea of how your system works, try flowcharting a DISTANT EDU. student through the entire process from first contact to entry into first course and final grades.

Any weakness in the system will show up in the flowchart process.

information technology
Information Technology


  • Administrative system
    • Main Administrative Data system
  • Instructional systems
    • Course Management
    • Delivery system(s)
  • Network/Internet
    • LANS, WANS and INTERNET Servers
    • Interconnectivity of systems
    • Security: Portals, Firewalls,
media department
Media Department


  • Printed materials
    • Study guides
    • Postal services for mailing
  • Graphics department
    • Charts
    • PowerPoint presentation
  • Video production
    • Taping of lectures, experiments, etc.
    • Distribution system for video tapes/DVD
instructional design good instruction just doesn t happen it has to be designed
Instructional Design Good Instruction just doesn’t happen, it has to be designed!


  • Instructional designers who understand unique aspects of the learning environment.
  • Distance Education materials require repackaging and redesign
  • Wide variety of Instructional Design Models
    • Theory of Transactional Distance
    • Dialog and Interaction Paramount
  • WebCT Exemplary Courses
distance library services

Distance Library Services


Presented by

Johanna Tunon

Head of Distance and Instructional

Library Services

delivery systems presented by dr marsha burmeister
Delivery SystemsPresented by Dr. Marsha Burmeister


  • Choosing a Delivery System(s)
    • Location of the Learners.
    • Skills and resources of learners
    • Institutional support and budget
  • Choosing a Course Management systems
    • Analysis of Course Management System
faculty student support
Faculty/Student Support


  • Faculty:
    • Readiness of faculty to teach online
    • Training in both the software skills and the new pedagogy pyridine.
    • Ownership and copyright issues of teaching materials
    • Class size
    • Compensation and work load
student support
Student Support
  • Initial technical help with Instructional system.
  • Help Desk – support for connection difficulties, basic operating system
    • Phone, email, IM
  • Online written instruction
  • Faculty – specific to course requirements
evaluation and improvement
Evaluation and Improvement


  • Evaluation of Online Courses and Programs: A Bibliography
  • Guidelines and forms for use in evaluating Distance Education

Schrum, Lynne, Oh What Wonders You Will See: Distance Education Past, Present, and Future, Learning and Leading with Technology Vol. 30, 3 Nov. 2002 pg 7-9,20

Moore, Michael G., Kearsley, Greg, Distance education: a systems view, Wadsworth Publishing Company, Ca., 1996 p.2

Moore, Michael Gl, Telecommunications, Internationalism, and Distance Education, The American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 2 N.1,1988 Retrieve from WWW http://www.ajde.com/Contents/vol2_1.htm

National Center for Educational Statistics http://www.nces.ed.gov

Spahn, Suzanne. Summary of Distance Education Information for Higher Education Leaders, Presentation at Institution for Public Policy and Executive Leadership and Higher Education, October 15, 2004 North Miami Beach, Fl.

Fitzpatrick, J.L., Sanders, J.R., & Worthen, B. R. (2004). Program Evaluation: Alternative Approaches and Practical Guidelines.

Owen, J. M. & Rogers, P. J. (1999). Program Evaluation Forms and Approaches.