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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

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  1. Chapter 2 Computer Hardware

  2. Chapter Contents • Section A: Personal Computer Basics • Section B: Microprocessors and Memory • Section C: Storage Devices • Section D: Input and Output Devices • Section E: Hardware Security Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  3. Personal Computer Systems So, where does the actual computing happen? Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  4. Desktop and Portable Computers • The term form factor refers to the size and dimensions of a component, such as a system board or system unit • A desktop computer fits on a desk and runs on power from an electrical wall outlet Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  5. Desktop and Portable Computers • A portable computer is a small, lightweight personal computer • A notebook computer (also referred to as a laptop), is a small, lightweight portable computer that opens like a clamshell to reveal a screen and keyboard • A tablet computer is a portable computing device featuring a touch-sensitive screen that can be used as a writing or drawing pad • An ultra-mobile PC (UMPC) is a small form factor tablet computer designed to run most of the software available for larger portable computers Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  6. Desktop and Portable Computers Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  7. Microprocessors and Memory • Microprocessor Basics • Today’s Microprocessors • Random Access Memory • Read-only Memory • EEPROM Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  8. Microprocessor Basics • A microprocessor is an integrated circuit designed to process instructions • ALU • Registers • Control unit • Instruction set Pin Grid Array (PGA) Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  9. Microprocessor Basics • Front side bus • HyperTransport • Microprocessor clock • Megahertz • Gigahertz • Word size • Cache • Level 1 cache (L1) • Level 2 cache (L2) • CISC vs. RISCtechnology Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  10. Microprocessor Basics • Serial processing • Pipelining • Parallel processing • Dual core processor • Hyper-Threading Technology Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  11. Today’s Microprocessors Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  12. Techno-speak Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  13. Random Access Memory • Random Access Memory is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  14. Random Access Memory • Microscopic capacitors hold the bits that represent data • Most RAM is volatile • Requires electrical power to hold data Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  15. Random Access Memory • RAM capacity is expressed in megabytes or gigabytes • Personal computers typically feature between 256MB and 2GB of RAM • An area of the hard disk, called virtual memory, can be used if an application runs out of allocated RAM Consequence of too little?? too much?? Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  16. Random Access Memory • RAM speed is often expressed in nanoseconds (8ns v. 10ns) or megahertz • SDRAM is fast and relatively inexpensive • DDR/DDR2 (double data rate) • RDRAM is more expensive, and usually found in high-performance workstations DIMM DDR2 DIMM Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  17. Read-Only Memory • ROM is a type of memory circuitry that holds the computer’s startup routine • Permanent and non-volatile • Programmable only once , “hard-wired” • The ROM BIOS tells the computer how to access the hard disk, find the operating system, and load it into RAM, etc. • BIOS: Basis Input/Output System Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  18. EEPROM • Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory • More permanent than RAM, and less permanent than ROM • Requires no power to hold data Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  19. F Memory – Quick Quiz • T / F RAM is a form of permanent storage used by personal computers. • RAM capacity capable of storing ~ 1,000 million characters would be expressed as _________ of RAM. • If your computer manufacturer advertises that you to can keep your computer’s BIOS up to date by downloading and installing revisions/updates, the BIOS for your computes is probably stored on a/an ________ device. 1 GigaByte EEPROM Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  20. Storage Devices • Storage Basics • Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology • CD and DVD Technology • Solid State Storage • Storage Wrap-up Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  21. Storage Basics • A storage medium contains data • A storage device recordsdata and retrieves data on a storage medium • Data gets copied from a storage device into RAM, where it waits to be processed • Processed data is held temporarily in RAM before it is copied to a storage medium • Access times typically measured in milliseconds • recall RAM access times in nanoseconds Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  22. Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology • Magnetic storage stores data by magnetizing microscopic particles on the disk or tape surface Durability? Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  23. Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology Hard disk platters and read-write heads are sealed inside the drive case or cartridge to screen out dust and other contaminants. Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  24. Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology • A controller positions the disk and read-write heads to locate data • SATA • Ultra ATA • EIDE • SCSI • Not as durable as many other storage technologies • Head crash! Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  25. Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology • A floppy disk is a round piece of flexible Mylar plastic covered with a thin layer of magnetic oxide and sealed inside a protective casing • A tape drive is a device that reads data from and writes data to a long stream of recordable media similar to the tapes used in audio cassettes • A tape is a sequential storage medium Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  26. CD and DVD Technology • Optical storage stores data as microscopic light and dark spots (lands and pits) on the disk surface • CD and DVD storage technologies Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  27. CD and DVD Technology • Today’s DVD drives typically have 16X speeds for a data transfer rate of 168.75 Mbps (Note: 16x CD  19.2 Mbps) • Three categories of optical technologies • Read-only (ROM) • Recordable (R) • Rewritable (RW) CD: 780nm DVD: 650nm Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  28. CD and DVD Technology Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  29. Solid State Storage • Solid state storage technology stores data in an erasable, rewritable circuitry • Non-volatile • Card reader may be required to read data on solid state storage Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  30. Solid State Storage • A USB flash drive is a portable storage device that plugs directly into a computer’s USB port using a built-in connector (like a portable EEPROM device) • A U3 drive is a special type of USB flash drive that is preconfigured to autoplay when it is inserted into a Windows computer Durability? Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  31. Storage Wrap-up, comparison Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  32. Input and Output Devices • Basic Input Devices • Display Devices • Printers • Installing Peripheral Devices Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  33. Basic Input Devices • Keyboard • Pointing device • Pointing stick • Trackpad • Trackball • Joystick • Touch screen Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  34. Display Devices • A CRT display device uses a bulky glass tube • An LCD manipulates light within a layer of liquid crystal cells • Plasma screen technology illuminates lights arranged in a panel-like screen Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  35. Display Devices • Viewable image size • Dot pitch • Viewing angle width • Refresh rate • Color depth • Resolution • VGA, SVGA, XGA, SXGA, UXGA, and WUXGA Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  36. Display Devices Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  37. Display Devices • Graphics circuitry generates the signals for displaying an image on the screen • Integrated graphics • Graphics card • Graphics processing unit (GPU) Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  38. Printers • An ink-jet printer has a nozzle-like print head that sprays ink onto paper • A laser printer works like a photocopier Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  39. Printers • Dot matrix printers produce characters and graphics by using a grid of fine wires • The wires strike a ribbon and the paper Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  40. Printers • Printer features • Resolution (pixel w x h, dpi/dot pitch) • Print speed (ppm) • Duty cycle (ppM) • Operating costs • Duplex capability • Memory • Networkability Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  41. Installing Peripheral Devices • The data bus moves data within the computer • Expansion cards are small circuit boards that give the computer additional capabilities • Expansion slot • ISA • PCI • AGP • PCMCIA slot • PC card Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  42. Installing Peripheral Devices An expansion card simply slides into an expansion slot and is secured with a small screw. Before you open the case, make sure you unplug the computer and ground yourself—that’s technical jargon for releasing static electricity by using a special grounding wristband or by touching both hands to a metal object. Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

  43. Chapter 2 Complete Computer Hardware