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G AMES -T O -T EACH P ROJECT Winter 2003. Kurt Squire: Research Manager, MIT Comparative Media Studies Henry Jenkins : Director, MIT Comparative Media Studies. Games-to-Teach. Background / historical context Research & Design commitments 15 Conceptual frameworks Issues & Themes

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g ames t o t each p roject winter 2003
GAMES-TO-TEACH PROJECTWinter 2003

Kurt Squire: Research Manager, MIT Comparative Media Studies

Henry Jenkins: Director, MIT Comparative Media Studies

slide2

Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context
  • Research & Design commitments
  • 15 Conceptual frameworks
  • Issues & Themes
  • Next steps
slide3

Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context
  • Research & Design commitments
  • 15 Conceptual frameworks
  • Issues & Themes
  • Next steps
combating misconceptions
Combating Misconceptions

Modeling & Simulation

  • 50% of Harvard graduates can’t explain the seasons
  • School knowledge vs. lived experience
  • Constructivist pedagogies
    • Addressing prior beliefs
    • Work through conceptions
    • Use ideas across contexts
combating misconceptions8
Combating Misconceptions

Interactive Narrative

  • 50% of Harvard graduates can’t explain the seasons
  • School knowledge vs. lived experience
  • Constructivist pedagogies
    • Addressing prior beliefs
    • Work through conceptions
    • Use ideas across contexts
slide11

Games-to-Teach Vision

Contemporary Pedagogy

+

State-of-the-Art Gaming

=

Next Generation Educational Media

slide13

Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context
  • Research & Design commitments
  • Conceptual frameworks
  • Issues & themes
  • Next steps / invitation for participation
slide14

Games-to-Teach

GameDesigners

MITFaculty

ComparativeMedia

Studies

Educational Technologists

Students

slide15

Learning Sciences

  • Learning is a process of personal construction
    • Pre-existing beliefs color all understandings
    • Learning occurs through testing ideas
  • Knowledge is socially negotiated
    • Communities of practice determine “truths”
  • Realism is not always best
    • “Perfect models” are too complex
    • Simplify conditions to illustrate concepts
  • Instruction is preparation for future learning
    • Transfer studies
  • We create meaning with media
    • We ask questions, wrestle with meaning, explore fantasies
    • Media consumption is a social experience
slide16

Research on Gaming

  • Increased motivation(Cordova & Lepper, 1997; Malone, 1985)
  • Role of Instructional context (White & Frederickson, 1998)
    • “Metacognition”
    • Set up
    • Reflection
  • Effective within inquiry framework(White & Frederickson, 1998)
  • Social interactions produce learning(Johnson & Johnson, 1985)
  • “Emerging pedagogies”(Squire & Reigeluth, 1999)
    • Problem Based Learning (Barrows et al, 1999)
    • Anchored Instruction (Bransford et al, 1992)
    • Goal-Based Scenarios (Schank, 1996)
    • Case-Based Reasoning
slide17

Design Commitments

  • Appeal to broad audiences
    • Women in lead design roles
    • Gender inclusive game designs
  • Leverage existing genres
  • Provide “transgressive play”
  • Grounded in existing learning sciences research
  • Address misconceptions
  • “Induce” contextuality
  • Designing for sociability (Preece, 1999)
  • Recognizing Instructional Context
  • Embedded Assessment Data
slide18

Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context
  • Research & Design commitments
  • Conceptual frameworks
  • Issues & themes
  • Next steps / invitation for participation
slide22

You: The Virus

The Enemy: The Body

Replicate

Your Goal: Replication

slide23

Replicate

  • Phase 1: Find the organ
    • Dodge antibodies
    • “Read” the body’s responses
  • Phase 2: Enter the cell
    • Fast action controls
  • Phase 3: Attack the cell
    • Navigate through a 3D cell
    • Find the nucleus
    • Replicate!
slide24

Replicate

  • Transgressive Play
  • Leveraging existing “conflicts”
  • The body as a game board
    • Visualization
  • Choice  Thinking with content
    • Customization of viruses
    • Specialization and differentiation (role playing)
  • Elucidate misconceptions
    • Viruses & Temperature
  • Concessions in realism
    • Relative size, speed
biohazard biology through pathology
BiohazardBiology through Pathology
  • Action Role Playing - ER! + Outbreak + Deus Ex - Doctor / Disease control- Simulated Diseases- Pathology - Observation, experimentation- Content

- Inheritance Patterns- Viral Structure and Replication- Reproduction, - Growth and Development- Structural, Physiological, and Behavioral Adaptations

biohazard goal based scenarios
BiohazardGoal-Based Scenarios

Melodramatic tension Access to tools & resourcesSeductive Failure statesReplaying Events

biohazard simulated rpgs
BiohazardSimulated RPGs

Choices & ConsequencesTime, ResourcesCharacter Development Developing skills, making contacts, earning reputationSimulated WorldsViruses, synthetic charactersAuthentic toolsSkills, Read-outs, displaysAssessmentStatistics, records, reflectionMultiplayer potential

slide29

Environmental Detectives

Computer simulation on handheld computer triggered by real world location

  • Combines physical world and virtual world contexts
  • Embeds learners in authentic situations
  • Engages users in a socially facilitated context
proof of concept

Environmental Detectives

Proof of Concept
  • Players briefed about health problems
  • Givenbackground information and “budget”
  • Goal: Determine source of pollution by drilling sampling wells and remediate with pumping wells
  • Work in teams representing different interests (EPA, Industry, etc.)
slide31

Environmental Detectives

Position determined by GPS

Zoom in for detail

drilling wells

Environmental Detectives

Drilling wells
  • Choose
    • Sites to sample
    • Sampling methods
      • Influence budget, accuracy and timeliness of samples

Dig Wells

Collect Data

Wait for Readings

other simulation events

Environmental Detectives

Other Simulation Events
  • Triggering of media events at specified locations
    • library →

web documents

    • machine shop →

video interview

  • “Racing” virtual players
  • Sharing and interpreting data with team members
game conclusion

Environmental Detectives

Game Conclusion
  • Pinpoint location and cause of pollution
  • Scenario 1 (middle school)
    • Present evidence to a jury
  • Scenario 2 (MIT students)
    • Drill remediation wells and take new samples
    • Requires complex dynamic underlying model
game extensions

Environmental Detectives

Game Extensions
  • New Adaptations
    • Customize location, toxin, etc.
  • New Dimensions
    • Played across entire city
    • Played across months or weeks
    • Altered Spatial Scale
      • Entire building represents human body
  • New Domains
    • Historical Simulations
      • Walking the freedom trail
    • Epidemiological Studies
      • Tracking disease through population
  • New Tools
    • Authoring your own AR Simulations
slide36

Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context
  • Research & design commitments
  • Conceptual frameworks
  • Issues & themes
  • Next steps & invitation for participation
design themes
Design Themes
  • Leveraging “contested” spaces
  • Managing success & failure
    • Provide early successes, non gamers
    • Failure  learning
  • Graduated difficulty & complexity
  • Simulation underpinning
    • When do you cheat?
    • Where do you draw boundaries
  • Provide & anticipate transgressive play
    • Explore “what if scenarios”
  • What decisions is the player making
    • Practicing useful skills
    • Thinking “like an expert”
microworld simulation
Microworld Simulation
  • Playing by an “arbitrary” set of rules
    • Designing solutions, inferring meaning, testing system boundaries
    • Experiencing complex interactions from simple rules
  • Visualization
    • New ways of seeing information
    • Supercharged, Replicate
  • Level Design is critical
    • Force players to confront properties of a system
    • Power-ups, “health” clocks
  • Encouraging deep understanding
    • Fostering metacogntion
    • Encouraging reflection through social interactions (i.e. discussion)
  • Learning by design / creation
    • Designing solutions
    • Designing levels for others to play
    • Recording and publishing levels for critique
role playing games
Role Playing Games
  • What are the core concepts & skills?
    • What interesting roles (could) use these skills
  • Evaluating information from advisors
    • Choosing Advisors, information, interactions
    • Access to information as a constraint
    • Hidden Agenda, Civilization
  • Use RPG conventions
    • Build a character over time
    • Choose between skills, tools, statistics
    • Multiple solution paths
  • Use established pedagogical models
    • Anchored instruction, Problem-based learning, Goal-based scenarios
  • Building “teachable moments”
    • Failure starts a learning cycle
    • Failure  learning
    • Recording & replaying actions
slide40

Game-Based Pedagogy

Game

Student

Subject

slide41

Game-Based Pedagogy

Just-in-timelectures

Peers

Web-basedResources

Texts

Game

Student

E&MPhysics

Demonstrations

slide42

Game-Based Pedagogy

Just-in-timelectures

Peers

Web-basedResources

Texts

Game

Student

E&MPhysics

Demonstrations

Learning Context

walkaways
Walkaways
  • Games are social experiences
    • Explain what you did
    • Critique other games
  • Games allow hypothesis formation & testing
    • Failure leads to learning
  • Trust game conventions
    • Power-ups, character development
    • Differentiated roles,
  • Games vs. Simulations
    • Game designers cheat & this is good.
  • Games are motivating
slide44

Future Steps

Building a network of teachers, researchers and developers…

http://cms.mit.edu/games/education/

ksquire@mit.edu

slide45

Using Game Conventions

Contested spaces

  • Leveraging contests in content

Power – ups

  • Ways of making students choose
  • Ways of manipulating variables

Character development – choosing skills / items

  • Creating emotional investment
  • Inducing creative thinking

Differentiated Roles

leveraging social interactions
Leveraging Social Interactions

If learning is participation…

  • What is legitimate participation in social practices
  • Simulations vs. reality

Social interactions

  • Explaining strategies
  • Teacher’s “just-in-time” lectures

Collaborative communities of practice

Online communities

Sharing strategies (ala The Sims)

Using Games to “induce” complex problem solving

Role Playing

Microworlds

Strategy / Resource Management

slide47

Future Steps

Internal Development

  • Supercharged! (Electromagnetism)
  • Environmental Detectives (Environmental Studies)
  • Replicate! (Biology & Virology)

Developing with partners

- Biohazard(Emergency Response workers)

New content partners

  • Royal Shakespeare Company
  • Colonial Williamsburg
join us
Join Us!
  • Prototypes 1-10 on the web
    • Designs, pedagogy, technical notes, art
    • Documentation and media
    • http://cms.mit.edu/games/education/

Kurt Squire

ksquire@mit.edu

slide51

Assessment

  • Game Data
    • Levels completed, time per - problem, solution paths
  • Observations
    • Notes & Video-taped
  • Pre & Post - tests
    • Content “Interviews”
    • Written tests & Surveys
    • Dynamic tasks (zero, near, & far transfer)
  • Interviews with Instructors
  • Comparisons with “traditional groups”
contact information
Contact Information
  • Information:
    • http://cms.mit.edu/games/education/
  • To participate in pilot program
    • Email: cms-g2t-pilot
  • Contact:
    • Henry Jenkins: henry3@mit.edu
    • Randy Hinrichs: randyh@microsoft.com
    • Kurt Squire: ksquire@mit.edu
slide54

Game-Based Pedagogy

  • Importance of instructional context
    • set-up, debriefing, and reflection
  • Leveraging collaboration (e.g. Koschmann, 1996)
    • Reflection
  • Power of local culture & conditions (Squire et al., 2002)
    • Adoption & Adaptation
  • Teacher support and professional development
    • Communities of teachers
slide55

Game-Based Pedagogy

Yuro Engestrom, 1992

slide56

“Endogenous Game Play”

  • Immersive Learning Environments
    • Students developing and testing hypotheses
  • Role playing Games
    • Solving “authentic problems”
    • Access to authentic tools / resources
  • Visualization and Simulation
    • Leveraging potential contests
    • Spatial Conquests
    • Remediating physical laws
slide57

Engaging Media

  • Control, Challenge (Malone, 1981)
    • Instantaneous feedback
    • Adjusted Difficulty level
    • Choice
  • Fantasy, Exploration
    • Narrative, whimsy, fantasy, discovery
  • Social Contexts
    • Collaboration, Competition
slide58

GTT Research

555 respondents listed at least 1 favorite game.

  • Final Fantasy series (I-VIII) 55
  • Starcraft 46
  • Civiliation I/ II 29
  • Zelda 24
  • Tetris 22
  • Quake 21
  • Super Mario Brothers 21
  • Tournmanet 12
  • Snood 12
  • Madden Sports 8
  • The Sims 6