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G AMES -T O -T EACH P ROJECT Winter 2003. Kurt Squire: Research Manager, MIT Comparative Media Studies Henry Jenkins : Director, MIT Comparative Media Studies. Games-to-Teach. Background / historical context Research & Design commitments 15 Conceptual frameworks Issues & Themes

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GAMES-TO-TEACH PROJECTWinter 2003

Kurt Squire: Research Manager, MIT Comparative Media Studies

Henry Jenkins: Director, MIT Comparative Media Studies


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Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context

  • Research & Design commitments

  • 15 Conceptual frameworks

  • Issues & Themes

  • Next steps


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Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context

  • Research & Design commitments

  • 15 Conceptual frameworks

  • Issues & Themes

  • Next steps





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Combating Misconceptions

Modeling & Simulation

  • 50% of Harvard graduates can’t explain the seasons

  • School knowledge vs. lived experience

  • Constructivist pedagogies

    • Addressing prior beliefs

    • Work through conceptions

    • Use ideas across contexts


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Combating Misconceptions

Interactive Narrative

  • 50% of Harvard graduates can’t explain the seasons

  • School knowledge vs. lived experience

  • Constructivist pedagogies

    • Addressing prior beliefs

    • Work through conceptions

    • Use ideas across contexts




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Games-to-Teach Vision

Contemporary Pedagogy

+

State-of-the-Art Gaming

=

Next Generation Educational Media



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Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context

  • Research & Design commitments

  • Conceptual frameworks

  • Issues & themes

  • Next steps / invitation for participation


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Games-to-Teach

GameDesigners

MITFaculty

ComparativeMedia

Studies

Educational Technologists

Students


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Learning Sciences

  • Learning is a process of personal construction

    • Pre-existing beliefs color all understandings

    • Learning occurs through testing ideas

  • Knowledge is socially negotiated

    • Communities of practice determine “truths”

  • Realism is not always best

    • “Perfect models” are too complex

    • Simplify conditions to illustrate concepts

  • Instruction is preparation for future learning

    • Transfer studies

  • We create meaning with media

    • We ask questions, wrestle with meaning, explore fantasies

    • Media consumption is a social experience


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Research on Gaming

  • Increased motivation(Cordova & Lepper, 1997; Malone, 1985)

  • Role of Instructional context (White & Frederickson, 1998)

    • “Metacognition”

    • Set up

    • Reflection

  • Effective within inquiry framework(White & Frederickson, 1998)

  • Social interactions produce learning(Johnson & Johnson, 1985)

  • “Emerging pedagogies”(Squire & Reigeluth, 1999)

    • Problem Based Learning (Barrows et al, 1999)

    • Anchored Instruction (Bransford et al, 1992)

    • Goal-Based Scenarios (Schank, 1996)

    • Case-Based Reasoning


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Design Commitments

  • Appeal to broad audiences

    • Women in lead design roles

    • Gender inclusive game designs

  • Leverage existing genres

  • Provide “transgressive play”

  • Grounded in existing learning sciences research

  • Address misconceptions

  • “Induce” contextuality

  • Designing for sociability (Preece, 1999)

  • Recognizing Instructional Context

  • Embedded Assessment Data


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Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context

  • Research & Design commitments

  • Conceptual frameworks

  • Issues & themes

  • Next steps / invitation for participation



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You: The Virus

The Enemy: The Body

Replicate

Your Goal: Replication


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Replicate

  • Phase 1: Find the organ

    • Dodge antibodies

    • “Read” the body’s responses

  • Phase 2: Enter the cell

    • Fast action controls

  • Phase 3: Attack the cell

    • Navigate through a 3D cell

    • Find the nucleus

    • Replicate!


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Replicate

  • Transgressive Play

  • Leveraging existing “conflicts”

  • The body as a game board

    • Visualization

  • Choice  Thinking with content

    • Customization of viruses

    • Specialization and differentiation (role playing)

  • Elucidate misconceptions

    • Viruses & Temperature

  • Concessions in realism

    • Relative size, speed


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BiohazardBiology through Pathology

  • Action Role Playing - ER! + Outbreak + Deus Ex - Doctor / Disease control- Simulated Diseases- Pathology - Observation, experimentation- Content

- Inheritance Patterns- Viral Structure and Replication- Reproduction, - Growth and Development- Structural, Physiological, and Behavioral Adaptations


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BiohazardGoal-Based Scenarios

Melodramatic tension Access to tools & resourcesSeductive Failure statesReplaying Events


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BiohazardSimulated RPGs

Choices & ConsequencesTime, ResourcesCharacter Development Developing skills, making contacts, earning reputationSimulated WorldsViruses, synthetic charactersAuthentic toolsSkills, Read-outs, displaysAssessmentStatistics, records, reflectionMultiplayer potential


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Environmental Detectives

Computer simulation on handheld computer triggered by real world location

  • Combines physical world and virtual world contexts

  • Embeds learners in authentic situations

  • Engages users in a socially facilitated context


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Environmental Detectives

Proof of Concept

  • Players briefed about health problems

  • Givenbackground information and “budget”

  • Goal: Determine source of pollution by drilling sampling wells and remediate with pumping wells

  • Work in teams representing different interests (EPA, Industry, etc.)


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Environmental Detectives

Position determined by GPS

Zoom in for detail


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Environmental Detectives

Drilling wells

  • Choose

    • Sites to sample

    • Sampling methods

      • Influence budget, accuracy and timeliness of samples

Dig Wells

Collect Data

Wait for Readings


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Environmental Detectives

Other Simulation Events

  • Triggering of media events at specified locations

    • library →

      web documents

    • machine shop →

      video interview

  • “Racing” virtual players

  • Sharing and interpreting data with team members


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Environmental Detectives

Game Conclusion

  • Pinpoint location and cause of pollution

  • Scenario 1 (middle school)

    • Present evidence to a jury

  • Scenario 2 (MIT students)

    • Drill remediation wells and take new samples

    • Requires complex dynamic underlying model


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Environmental Detectives

Game Extensions

  • New Adaptations

    • Customize location, toxin, etc.

  • New Dimensions

    • Played across entire city

    • Played across months or weeks

    • Altered Spatial Scale

      • Entire building represents human body

  • New Domains

    • Historical Simulations

      • Walking the freedom trail

    • Epidemiological Studies

      • Tracking disease through population

  • New Tools

    • Authoring your own AR Simulations


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Games-to-Teach

  • Background / historical context

  • Research & design commitments

  • Conceptual frameworks

  • Issues & themes

  • Next steps & invitation for participation


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Design Themes

  • Leveraging “contested” spaces

  • Managing success & failure

    • Provide early successes, non gamers

    • Failure  learning

  • Graduated difficulty & complexity

  • Simulation underpinning

    • When do you cheat?

    • Where do you draw boundaries

  • Provide & anticipate transgressive play

    • Explore “what if scenarios”

  • What decisions is the player making

    • Practicing useful skills

    • Thinking “like an expert”


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Microworld Simulation

  • Playing by an “arbitrary” set of rules

    • Designing solutions, inferring meaning, testing system boundaries

    • Experiencing complex interactions from simple rules

  • Visualization

    • New ways of seeing information

    • Supercharged, Replicate

  • Level Design is critical

    • Force players to confront properties of a system

    • Power-ups, “health” clocks

  • Encouraging deep understanding

    • Fostering metacogntion

    • Encouraging reflection through social interactions (i.e. discussion)

  • Learning by design / creation

    • Designing solutions

    • Designing levels for others to play

    • Recording and publishing levels for critique


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Role Playing Games

  • What are the core concepts & skills?

    • What interesting roles (could) use these skills

  • Evaluating information from advisors

    • Choosing Advisors, information, interactions

    • Access to information as a constraint

    • Hidden Agenda, Civilization

  • Use RPG conventions

    • Build a character over time

    • Choose between skills, tools, statistics

    • Multiple solution paths

  • Use established pedagogical models

    • Anchored instruction, Problem-based learning, Goal-based scenarios

  • Building “teachable moments”

    • Failure starts a learning cycle

    • Failure  learning

    • Recording & replaying actions


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Game-Based Pedagogy

Game

Student

Subject


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Game-Based Pedagogy

Just-in-timelectures

Peers

Web-basedResources

Texts

Game

Student

E&MPhysics

Demonstrations


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Game-Based Pedagogy

Just-in-timelectures

Peers

Web-basedResources

Texts

Game

Student

E&MPhysics

Demonstrations

Learning Context


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Walkaways

  • Games are social experiences

    • Explain what you did

    • Critique other games

  • Games allow hypothesis formation & testing

    • Failure leads to learning

  • Trust game conventions

    • Power-ups, character development

    • Differentiated roles,

  • Games vs. Simulations

    • Game designers cheat & this is good.

  • Games are motivating


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Future Steps

Building a network of teachers, researchers and developers…

http://cms.mit.edu/games/education/

ksquire@mit.edu


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Using Game Conventions

Contested spaces

  • Leveraging contests in content

    Power – ups

  • Ways of making students choose

  • Ways of manipulating variables

    Character development – choosing skills / items

  • Creating emotional investment

  • Inducing creative thinking

    Differentiated Roles


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Leveraging Social Interactions

If learning is participation…

  • What is legitimate participation in social practices

  • Simulations vs. reality

    Social interactions

  • Explaining strategies

  • Teacher’s “just-in-time” lectures

    Collaborative communities of practice

    Online communities

    Sharing strategies (ala The Sims)

    Using Games to “induce” complex problem solving

    Role Playing

    Microworlds

    Strategy / Resource Management


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Future Steps

Internal Development

  • Supercharged! (Electromagnetism)

  • Environmental Detectives (Environmental Studies)

  • Replicate! (Biology & Virology)

    Developing with partners

    - Biohazard(Emergency Response workers)

    New content partners

  • Royal Shakespeare Company

  • Colonial Williamsburg




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Join Us!

  • Prototypes 1-10 on the web

    • Designs, pedagogy, technical notes, art

    • Documentation and media

    • http://cms.mit.edu/games/education/

      Kurt Squire

      ksquire@mit.edu


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Assessment

  • Game Data

    • Levels completed, time per - problem, solution paths

  • Observations

    • Notes & Video-taped

  • Pre & Post - tests

    • Content “Interviews”

    • Written tests & Surveys

    • Dynamic tasks (zero, near, & far transfer)

  • Interviews with Instructors

  • Comparisons with “traditional groups”


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Contact Information

  • Information:

    • http://cms.mit.edu/games/education/

  • To participate in pilot program

    • Email: cms-g2t-pilot

  • Contact:

    • Henry Jenkins: henry3@mit.edu

    • Randy Hinrichs: randyh@microsoft.com

    • Kurt Squire: ksquire@mit.edu



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Game-Based Pedagogy

  • Importance of instructional context

    • set-up, debriefing, and reflection

  • Leveraging collaboration (e.g. Koschmann, 1996)

    • Reflection

  • Power of local culture & conditions (Squire et al., 2002)

    • Adoption & Adaptation

  • Teacher support and professional development

    • Communities of teachers


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Game-Based Pedagogy

Yuro Engestrom, 1992


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“Endogenous Game Play”

  • Immersive Learning Environments

    • Students developing and testing hypotheses

  • Role playing Games

    • Solving “authentic problems”

    • Access to authentic tools / resources

  • Visualization and Simulation

    • Leveraging potential contests

    • Spatial Conquests

    • Remediating physical laws


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Engaging Media

  • Control, Challenge (Malone, 1981)

    • Instantaneous feedback

    • Adjusted Difficulty level

    • Choice

  • Fantasy, Exploration

    • Narrative, whimsy, fantasy, discovery

  • Social Contexts

    • Collaboration, Competition


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GTT Research

555 respondents listed at least 1 favorite game.

  • Final Fantasy series (I-VIII) 55

  • Starcraft 46

  • Civiliation I/ II 29

  • Zelda 24

  • Tetris 22

  • Quake 21

  • Super Mario Brothers 21

  • Tournmanet 12

  • Snood 12

  • Madden Sports 8

  • The Sims 6