Time: You should start a new paragraph when the time changes e.g. Later that day Topic: You should start a new paragraph when the topic changes TiPToP Paragraphs Person: You should start a new paragraph when a new personis introduced or there is a change of perspective Place: You should start a new paragraph when the place changes A new paragraph should be used when you change Time, Place, Topic or Person. There is no set length for a paragraph either. A short paragraph, sometimes just a line long, can be ideal and grab your attention Topic sentences These are used to introduce the topic of the paragraph but do not necessarily have to be the first sentence. E.g. ‘The first problem is getting the tree to stand up straight’ ‘With the tree happily vertical you may be thinking that your problems are over. Wrong! You now have to become a master of applied physics in order to get the lights to work.’
Homophones: words that sound similar but are spelt differently Homophones Here is a list of common homophone confusions: • There (place or statement) Their (belonging to them) They’re (they are) • Your (belonging to you) You’re (you are) • Where (place) Were (past tense of be) We’re (we are) • Too (in addition – too much) Two (2) To (direction or position) • Hour (60 minutes) Our (belonging to us) Are (present tense of be) • New (not old) Knew (prior knowledge) / Know (knowledge) No (opposite to yes) Now (at this time) • Whether (indicates alternatives)/ Weather (sun/rain) • Allowed (have permission) Aloud (spoken to be heard) • Hear (listen) here (place) / write (words on paper) right (as opposed to wrong) • Except (an exclusion) accept (to take) • Hole ( a cavity or space) whole (complete) • Quite (better than average) Quiet (not loud) • Which ( used to identify something) witch ( female who practises magic) • Throw ( to send an item through the air) Threw (past tense of throw) Through (from end to end ) Also it is important you pick up on – Should have or should’ve (not should of) / could have or could’ve (not could of)
Practise OR Practice? License OR Licence? Affect/Effect Fact 1: Verbs are ‘action’ or ‘being’ words Eg I ran /I am. Fact 2: Nouns are naming words. If you can say a/an or the in front of the word it will generally be a noun. Fact 3: In English spelling we use an S if the word is a verb and a C if the word is a noun. e.g. The choir practises on Tuesdays. (An Action so the verb form is used.) The practice of plagiarism is not to be encouraged. (You are naming a thing and so need the noun form). RAVEN R emember Noun/Verb confusion A ffect V erb E ffect N oun So…Advise OR Advice?
When do you use a comma? A comma separates parts of a sentence and shows when information is added. A comma is used to show when a subordinate clause is added – this is a section of a sentence that doesn’t make sense on it’s own. • Robert is an able student, who has the potential to do very well. • Comma slicing is a common mistake, which happens because students don’t identify the topic change. • The performance of the team was pleasing, though a substitution could be made in goal next time. • Given the addition of the extra students, the behaviour of the class is surprisingly good. The most obvious mistake with students using commas Comma Splicing – using a comma instead of a full stop. For example: Monday was exhausting, the students were lively and my lessons were tiring, lesson three in particular was hard and I wanted it to end. Commas – The main use This should be a full stop as the topic has changed.
Semi-colons can be used to separate two sentences that are related. For example: The students waited patiently to begin their exam; they were all taking it very seriously as they waited for the exam’s officer to instruct them to start. Semi-colons Semi-colons can be used to separate clauses in a sentence. For example: The expedition may be on or off; it all depends on the weather. Colons and semicolons Colons Semi-colons can be used in a list. For example: To ensure she would be noticed, she wore: a bright red hat; a smart, tailored suit; high heeled shoes; and she carried a blue, velvet hand bag. Notice that a colon is needed to introduce a list Colons are used to precede an explanation or an example of what has gone before. For example: John thought it was his mother’s fault: she should have tied up and found his missing homework. Colons can be used to show a quotation of more than seven words. Fewer than seven and a comma should be used. For example: The mum shouted: “Will you lot get down from that tree before you kill yourselves?”
1. Apostrophes – for possession Apostrophes 2. Apostrophes – for contractions
"y" to an "i" Is the final “Y” preceded by a vowel? No e.g. TRY Yes e.g. MONKEY Add an “S” Change the “y” to an “i” Spelling strategies Your word becomes monkeys Add “es” Your word becomes tries Adding an e to some words changes the vowel sound e.g. ‘cap’ and ‘cape’. If we were to make ‘cap’ the past tense, we would add another consonant to prevent this change of sound – ‘capped’ Doubling Consonants When adding a prefix or suffix to words ending in ‘LL’, you have to drop an ‘L’ e.g. ALL + MOST becomes ALMOST, CARE + FULL becomes CAREFUL The Double LL “ei” when it sounds like an “A” – vein, neighbour, weigh “ei” not preceded by a “C” – seize, weird, their "ie" or "ei"?
What makes up a basic simple sentence? Noun: name of a person, place, object A simple sentence also has a verb e.g. walked Simple Sentence The manwalked. A simple sentence has a subject (noun), which is the main focus e.g. man When checking a student’s work for missing capitalletters and full stops remember: a simple sentence has one idea and must contain the above to make sense.
What makes up a compound sentence? It is made up of twomain ideas, usually joined by a connective (conjunction). The verb (action) is walked Compound Sentence . The manwalkeddown the road and The subject (noun), which is the main focus, is man Main Clause he wentinto the shop. .
What makes up a complex sentence? Any sentence that is not simple or compound is a complex sentence. The strict definition is: “A sentence with at least one independent main clause and one dependent clause”. However, there are many different types! Here are a few examples. The Dependent or Subordinate Clause…. A subordinate clause also has a subject and averbe.g.heandhad It is incomplete and therefore does not make sense on its own Complex Sentence Subordinate Clause This also means it cannot start with a capital letter and end with a full stop It is different because it is introduced by a subordinating connective e.g. although, because, if , when, until, unless…. although he hada bike
What makes up a complex sentence? Adding a Dependent or Subordinate Clause…. to a simple sentence = a complex sentence he manwalked down the road. Main Clause , Although T If you know where the clauses are separated then you can check for missing commas! A subordinate clause also has a subjectand amain verb e.g.heandhad Complex Sentence Subordinate Clause This also means it cannot start with a capital letter and end with a full stop It is different because it is introduced by a subordinating connective e.g. although, because, if , when, until, unless…. although he hada bike It is incomplete and therefore does not makesense on its own
The manwalked down the road. Miss Noble shouted. To summarise… Simple sentences have one idea, including the main focus (subjectnoun) and a verb (action, emotion…) e.g. Compound Sentences have two ideas joined by a conjunction/connective (but, however..) e.g. Complex Sentences have a single main idea with one or more parts (usually clauses) of extra information. These can go at the beginning, middle or end of the sentence e.g. The manwalked down the roadand hewent into the shop. Miss Noble shoutedbecause shewas tired. Sentence Structure The man,whowashungry,wentinto thesupermarket. Despite being late for work, the manwent into the supermarket.