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European State-system Augsburg-Westphalia-Viena-París & the Twenty-First Century The Empire, by definition “The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation”, in 1648 The settlement of the Wars of Religion (and, incidentally the end of Spanish Hegemony in Europe)

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european state system

European State-system

Augsburg-Westphalia-Viena-París

&

the Twenty-First Century

the empire by definition the holy roman empire of the german nation in 1648
The Empire, by definition“The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation”, in 1648
  • The settlement

of the Wars of Religion (and, incidentally the end of Spanish

Hegemony in Europe)

a giant mish mash of sovereignties and suzereignty
A Giant Mish-Mash of sovereignties and suzereignty
  • The Simplified Version
  • The old schoolchild lesson
  • “In 1789, there were 1.789 independent entities in the Holy Roman Empire”
the steps of statehood 1
The steps of Statehood -1-
  • The Peace of Augsburg 1555: “Cuius regio, eius religio”
  • Never trust sources: What about Transylvania?
the peace of augsburg 1555 the end of the medieval dream of world empire of charles v
The Peace of Augsburg, 1555The end of the Medieval dream of world empire of Charles V
  • The limits of

Imperial power

the steps of statehood 2
The steps of Statehood -2-
  • The Peace of Munster and Westphalia, 1648: the generalization of the concept of independent sovereignty
westphalia 1648
Westphalia, 1648
  • The mutual recognition of sovereignty limited by frontiers and the right to full internal affairs
winners losers
Winners & losers
  • Dutch East india Company Spanish Burgundy Flag
slide12

Siege of Viena, 1683The effective end of Ottoman powerJohn III Sobieski (1629-1696), Elective King of Poland, the superhero of Christendom

slide13
BUT SOON THE POLISH COMMONWEALTH (Poland-Lithuania) WILL CEASE TO BE A MAJOR POWER, ALONG WITH SWEDEN AND THEOTTOMAN EMPIRE
peace of utrecht 1713 ends war of spanish succession
Peace of Utrecht, 1713Ends War of Spanish Succession
  • Losers> Old empires
  • Spain,
  • Sweden,
  • Poland
  • Ottomans
  • Winners> New Powers
  • Russia
  • Prussia
  • Austria
slide16

The Sad Case of the Catalans1714The Archduke Charles; Rigaud’s rendering of the piercing of Barcelona’s defenses; a romantic, patriotic version for Catalan consumption

slide17

The “SUCCESSION WARS”The uncounted “War of English Succession” 1688<<<< English and Scots Revolution in the Seventeenth CenturyExecution of Charles II Stuart, 1649; James II Stuart overthrown in “Glorious Revolution of 1688”; Old Pretender, born 1688, James Edward Stuart; “Bonnie Prince Charlie” Charles Edward Stuart; William of Orange (“Good King Billy”) and Mary II Stuart

hereafter british balance of power
Hereafter,British “Balance of Power”
  • British composite Monarchy up to 1707
  • Britain plays the field, always against France, or whatever strongest power on continent
slide19

Crown of Aragon submitted to royal authority, 1707-1716Regne de València i l'Aragó: 29 de juny de 1707. Mallorca i les Pitiüses: 28 de novembre de 1715. Principat de Catalunya: 16 de gener de 1716.Battle of Almansa 1707

slide20
Scotland submitted to royal authority, 1745Battle of Culloden; End of Jacobite threat to Hannover dynasty
dynastic struggles
DYNASTIC STRUGGLES
  • Conflicts for control of Crowns bring down old powers
slide23

New Powers:France wants continental primacyfrom Louis XIV to Napoleon IEXPANSION AT THE EXPENSE OF “SPAIN”Roussillon to French Crown, 1659

new powers prussia
New Powers: Prussia
  • The new model of a modern military State
the partitions of poland
The Partitions of Poland
  • 1772, 1793, 1795, till Poland disappears from the map
congreso de viena 1814 1815
Congreso de Viena 1814-1815
  • EL RETRATO DE LOS POTENTADOS Y NEGOCIADORES
1815 1985
1815-1985
  • En el Congreso de Viena, España sale de Europa
  • No vuelve a participar en una guerra general europea
  • No entra ni en la Primera Guerra Mundial

1914-1918 (Portugal sí),

ni en la Segunda Guerra Mundial

1939-1945

.Spain signs EU treaty 1985, enters as member 1986

espa a foco liberal hasta 1823
España, foco liberal hasta 1823
  • Ocupaciones francesas 1808-1814 y 1823-1828
1820 revolutions in italy and spanish 1812 constitution
1820 Revolutions in Italyand Spanish 1812 Constitution
  • The notion of “Liberal” and “Patriot are generalized in Europe by the Spanish struggle of 1808-1814.
  • In 1820, liberal revoution in Spain spreads to Naples and Turin
statehood and diplomacy
Statehood and Diplomacy
  • Diplomacy= States talk to States (not chats among dynasts and their ministers)
  • Consular service recognized: how individual “private persons” talk to States; but also how States talk to “non-States”
  • Military becomes State service, although formally “to Crown”, who heads the “Nation”
  • The Russian imperial alternative
liberalism and democracy
Liberalism and Democracy
  • A written or unwritten constitution?
  • By popular sovereignty or granted by the monarch?
  • Who is ultimate depository of sovereignty: monarch or parliament?
  • Who gets to vote? Who gets to be elected?
  • Empires, United kingdoms, United provinces or republics
the map changes 1859 1871 big entities with internal divisions monarchical federalism as norm
The map changes 1859-1871big entities with internal divisionsMonarchical federalism as norm
paris peace treaties 1919 23 and the cordon sanitaire
PARIS PEACE TREATIES, 1919-23and the “Cordon Sanitaire”
  • LOTS OF LITTLE REPUBLICS WHERE BEFORE THERE WERE A FEW EMPIRES
the new europe
The “New Europe”
  • Another perspective
danish autonomy for iceland 1918
Danish autonomy for Iceland, 1918
  • Autonomy is a new version of suzereignty, adapted to circumstance of popular sovreignty
slide40
Micro-states and autonomic régimes in Interwar Europe: saome “hotpoints”Fiume, Vilnius, Memel, Danzig, Aaland islands