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Building Condition Assessment and Documentation Part IV – Mech, Elec & Plumbing. Randy Warbington, PE Facilities Program Manager Southern Region USDA Forest Service. 3 Day Course Prepared for Presentation at ESRU, March 10-12, 2008
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Building Condition Assessment and DocumentationPart IV – Mech, Elec & Plumbing Randy Warbington, PE Facilities Program Manager Southern Region USDA Forest Service 3 Day Course Prepared for Presentation at ESRU, March 10-12, 2008 Edited for Presentation at National Facilities Meeting, April 30-May 2, 2008 Mark McDonough, PE Assistant Station Engineer Southern Research Station USDA Forest Service
Inspecting Plumbing Backflow Prevention Valves – typically require annual testing
What to Look for When Inspecting Plumbing • Toilets and Urinals • Sinks and Lavatories • Tubs and Showers • Drinking Fountains • Eye Wash Units • Water Heaters • Piping – Water, Waste, Vent, Gas
Removal and replacement of toilets and/or urinals, including flush valves Life expectancy for the fixture is 35 years, for the flush valves, perhaps 10 years (note: replacement of flush valves only is O&M) Many old ones are not accessible; they may be leaking May need replacement with water saving toilets – dual flush or 1.5 gpf water closets and waterless or 1/8 gpf urinals WI 10001 – Toilet/Urinal Replacement “Waterless” Urinals
WI 10001 – Toilet Replacement (cont.) Bowl should be elongated vs. round, and open seat cover as above should be provided for public uses. Has grab bar (not right size) and seat is too low.
Removal and replacement of fixture, including faucets and drains Unit of measure is “each”, or per sink May be needed for accessibility purposes Typical life expectancy is 35 years WI 10002 – Sink or Lavatory Replacement
WI 10002 – Sink or Lavatory Replacement Replacement of a sink of this magnitude would be a custom work item not covered by the standard item. Notice the duplex receptacles (GFCI?) and the AC unit located just above the sink.
This representative work item covers removal and replacement of tub, shower or combo unit, whether porcelain, tile, fiberglass, etc., including faucets and drains May be needed for accessibility reasons Expected life – 25 years Work Item 10003 – Tub/Shower Replacement
Removal and replacement of complete unit (don’t save old one) May be needed for accessibility purposes, or due to compressor failure; unit of measure is “each” Typical life expectancy is 10 years WI 10004 – Drinking Fountain Note: unit requires the “notch” under the fountain for accessibility
Remove/replace worn out unit Unit of measure is “each” Test units during inspection to assure that they continue to be functional Assure that they are easily accessible Life expectancy – 25 years Work Item 10005 – Eyewash Unit
This item includes complete removal and replacement of water heaters, gas or electric, including valves, venting, etc. as required with the Forest Service standard (commercial, not residential) Also covers small boilers up to about 150,000 Btuh Look at the nameplate to determine its date of manufacture Unit of measure is “each” Life expectancy – 15 years WI 10006 – Water Heaters
Water Heaters (safety items) • Check to assure pop-off valves are present, are turned down toward the floor and plumbed to a floor drain or to the outside • Check to assure seismic restraints are in place as appropriate • Check to assure gas units are located a minimum of 18” above the floor • Check to assure anti-scald devices are functional
Work Item 10007 – LP Gas or Fuel Oil Piping • This work item is for the complete replacement of a typical LP service from the tank to the building, including piping and fittings; the tank and regulators are a separate item, often buried, unlike the one shown here; unit of measure is linear feet • Existing gas piping may be hard or soft copper, black iron, polyethylene • May be rusted or corroded, or leaks may be suspected • Could also be used to cover fuel oil system • Typical service life – 30 Years Using soapy water to check for leaks at the regulator
Piping – Water and DWV • Water pipe may be galvanized, copper, PVC, CPVC, polyethylene, polybutylene • Drain, waste and vent pipe may be cast iron, PVC or ABS • Usually lasts the life of the building unless it has frozen, or in the case of galvanized piping, corroded • Fixing leaks is normally immediately obvious and handled as O&M • Required plumbing work of this nature would be a custom work item
What to Look for When Inspecting HVAC Systems • Furnaces and Heat Pump Air Handling Units • Condensing Units • Condensate Piping – Terminations • Refrigerant Piping • Filters • Circulation Pumps • Boilers • Chillers • Cooling Towers • Package Terminal Units • Unit Heaters • Ductwork – Cleaning • Duct Replacement • Registers • Controls
Fractional horsepower up to about 3 hp, could also cover vacuum pumps, including controls Note (water system pumps in pump houses are W&S, not Buildings) Unit of measure is “each” Often need better support, vibration mounts, isolation valves, flexible connections, disconnects nearby Typical Life Expectancy – 20 Years WI 11001 – Circulation Pumps
May be cast iron, steel, copper fin, or condensing type from 200,000 up to about 2 million Btuh, oil or gas-fired Unit of measure is “each” Often need replacement to improve system efficiency Typical life is 30 years WI 11002 – Boiler Replacement
Replacement of boilers up to about 150,000 Btuh are better represented by WI 10006 – Water heaters Typical Life – 15 Years Often need replacement to improve system efficiency – older boilers are @ 60%, condensing are 90+% Unit of measure is “each” Small Boilers (150 MBtuh or less)
This work item covers the complete removal and replacement of a worn out cooling tower and appurtenances Unit of measure is “each” Typically used in conjunction with a water-cooled chiller Life expectancy – 15 years WI 11003 – Cooling Towers
This item is for removal and replacement Typically used in conjunction with a cooling tower, normally located indoors in a mechanical room May be centrifugal, screw or piston and cylinder Units with 60-100 tons of cooling capacity are common in our labs Expected life is about 40 years WI 11004 – Water-Cooled Chiller
This work item is similar to the one above, it is for removal and replacement of a worn out chiller Unit of measure is “each” Package units located outside on a pad or on the roof Typical size for our labs is 70 - 100 tons of cooling capacity Life expectancy – 15 years WI 11005 – Air-Cooled Chiller
WI 11006 – Replace Condensing Unit • Residential and Light Commercial Units to 5 tons Cooling Capacity • May be required for energy efficiency and ozone-saving refrigerants • Typical Life Expectancy – 15 Years • Other common situations – inadequate clearance, not level, bent fins or guards, refrigerant pipe insulation damaged – if exposed to sun recommend white UV-coating.
Larger Units like this up to perhaps 60 tons each are common at labs Note the number to be replaced and the tonnage Base on life expectancy of 15 years, similar to previous item This is a custom work item Larger Condensing Units
Includes electric, LP, fuel oil and natural gas furnaces, as well as water source and air-air heat pump blower coil units Unit of measure is “each” May need replacement to increase system efficiency Typical life expectancy is about 15 years for heat pumps and 20 years for furnaces WI 11007 – Furnaces, Heat Pump AHUs
Wished they all looked like this! • Check condensate lines and terminations to assure they are clear; also check condensate pumps. If gas check to assure that ventilation has not been blocked, where required, and check to see if carbon monoxide detectors are in place. If not, note the need for these detectors. • For water source units check for visible leaks in piping. For all units assure that filters are accessible and are in place. Mechanical Room in Bessey RD Office
Removal and replacement of wood heaters and wood stoves can be represented by WI #11007 as well Free-standing, central system, wood, coal or pellets Includes the unit as well as venting Need to check to assure adequate clearance from combustibles Wood Heaters and Wood Stoves
Item is for removal and replacement of worn out or inoperative units Through-the-wall, gas-pak, hotel unit, rooftop, mounted in windows, or suspended from ceiling tiles Vary a lot in efficiency Unit of measure is “each” Typical life expectancy is 10 years WI 11008 – Package Terminal HVAC Unit PTAC PTAC Ductless Split System Could Also Fit into this Category
This item covers removal and replacement of unit heaters, may be electric or gas; could also include gas tube heaters as well Unit of measure is “each” Typical life expectancy – 15 years WI 11009 – Unit Heater Note: CO monitors should be in place if units are gas or oil fueled.
This items is for removal and replacement of worn out air compressors permanently mounted to a building, not portable units Unit of measure is “each” Typical life expectancy – 25 years WI 12001 – Air Compressors Note: portable air compressors are personal property, not real. Also note, OSHA requires monthly checks on compressors.
WI 12002 – Elevators • This work item is for removal and replacement of inoperative elevators or lifts up to about 3 stories high, or for installation of elevators in multi-floor buildings where required for accessibility. • Unit of measure is “each”. • Typical life expectancy – 50 years.
Elevators • Elevators require annual inspection by the state. Check to assure that tags are in place indicating that this is happening. • Might check to assure oil reservoirs and piping is not leaking. • Check to assure any phone lines are functional.
Custom Elevators • The elevator descending down a 216 deep shaft into Blanchard Springs Caverns on the Ozark NF would be a custom item
Item is for removal and replacement of worn out fume or inoperative fume hoods Sashes may be worn out, inoperative, or could be needed to improve energy efficiency Unit of measure – “each” Typical life expectancy – 30 years WI 12003 – Lab Fume Hoods Note: OSHA requires annual inspection of face velocity and overall function – should be tagged indicate.
Includes bathroom exhaust fans as well as exhaust fans in shop buildings, residential kitchen hoods, and fans in attics, warehouses, and garages Use custom work item for these Life expectancy – 10 years Exhaust Fans Typically guards are needed over fans such as this for safety sake. Sometimes they have been removed and never replaced again.
Sheet metal ducts – galvanized or aluminum - usually last the life of the building Insulation, duct cement and/or taping is often compromised, however Flex-ducts may sag over the years if not well supported Duct cleaning may be needed, especially in dirty and/or dusty environments Ductwork Flex-duct may collapse if not properly supported.
What to Look for When Inspecting Electrical Systems • Transformers and Metering Equipment • Service Masts (pulling away from building) • Switchboards • Power and Lighting Panels • Disconnects • Conduit & Wiring • Light Fixtures • Emergency Light Fixtures, Exit Signs • Gensets
This work item covers removal and replacement of obsolete or worn out metering and service equipment up to 1200 amps and 600 volts Unit of measure is “each” Typical situations are corroded or undersized equipment or fuses and breakers no longer available Typical life expectancy, 20 years. WI 13001 – Main Service Switchgear Note: transformer not included.
May be fused or non-fused, or enclosed circuit breakers (single CB in a cabinet) Intended to serve a single piece of equipment Should be within sight of the equipment they serve Unit of measure is “each” Normal service life – 25 years WI 13002 – Disconnects
Removal and replacement of load centers or lighting and equipment panels, single or 3 phase up to 42 spaces, 400 ampere rating May need replacement due to rust and corrosion, growth of load being served or obsolescence Unit of measure – “each” Typical life expectancy 30 years WI 13003 – Electrical Panels
Check to assure knockouts are fitted with appropriate covers, not open Check to assure circuits are properly labeled After about 20 years electrical connections should be checked and re-tightened to the appropriate torque by a licensed electrician If a thermography unit is available test to assure there are no hot spots in the unit Electrical Panels
Removal and replacement of broken light fixtures, incandescent, fluorescent, HID, interior or exterior Change-out may be needed to increase system efficiency, going from magnetic to electronic ballasts, for example Unit of measure is “each” Typical life expectancy is 20 years WI 13004 – Light Fixtures
Look to assure the prismatic lenses are in place, not yellowed, wiring channel covers are in place, unlike this fixture Many times missing guards need replacing for safety sake (O&M item) Re-lamping is also an O&M item Light Fixtures
Includes removing and replacing obsolete or inoperative emergency light fixtures and exit signs Fluorescent, LED or photo-luminescent May need to replace to improve efficiency Unit of measure is “each” Typical life expectancy of 20 years WI 13005 – Emergency Light Fixtures
Removal and replacement of obsolete or inoperative systems You might discover that changes in occupancies like this that require fire alarms, smoke detectors, etc. These systems should be tested during inspection Unit of measure – “each system” Typical system life – 20 years WI 13006 – Fire/Security Alarm System
Fire Alarm System (cont.) • The item covers the complete system, including control panels, fire alarms, smoke detectors, etc. • Combination fire alarm/burglar alarm systems are typical
Removal and replacement of complete system - lightning rods, down conductors, bonding clamps, grounding electrodes Particularly important in rural/remote areas Need NFPA 780 master label Unit of measure – each system Typical system life expectancy 25 years WI 13007 – Lightning Protection Systems
Lightning Protection Systems • For protection of the structure, not the electronic equipment in it • Systems to protect electronic equipment from lightning surges is separate, and very expensive • NFPA 780 has a flow chart used to guide the decision whether or not this system is needed • Alternative systems (non-NFPA labeled) intended to prevent lightning strikes, etc.) are highly advertised, but are not proven to be effective, therefore are not recommended