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The scenario After f ive decades of development education still remains elusive, with 59 million children between 6- 14 still out of school (of which 35 million are estimated to be girls. EDUCATION OF GIRLS Drop out rate is high Out of every 10 girls who enter school only 6 Reach class five

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the scenario
The scenario

After five decades of development education still remains elusive, with 59 million children between 6- 14 still out of school (of which 35 million are estimated to be girls.



Drop out rate is high

Out of every 10 girls who enter school only 6

Reach class five

A third of the girls who enter class 1 drop out

After class 2

policy initiatives
Policy Initiatives
  • Significant Involvement of Central Government in literacy and elementary education - National Policy on Education - 1986
  • Empowering Local Bodies – 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment
elementary education as fundamental right
Elementary Education as Fundamental Right
  • Constitutional Amendment making Education a Fundamental Right
  • A Central Legislation to enforce this Right under the anvil
schemes and programmes of the goi
  • The Government of India is implementing more than 120 schemes and programmes for the welfare and development of children and women through more than 13 Ministries and Departments

Very little coordination between these departments

the npa efa in india
The NPA- EFA in India

The NPA- EFA India draws the following national goals corresponding to the six Dakar goals

  • Integrated Child Development Services scheme being universalized - early childhood care and education are an important component of the scheme - Goal 1
  • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Movement for Education For All) launched with the aim of providing 8 years of quality education to all children in the age group 6-14 years by 2010 – Goal 2 and 6
  • A comprehensive plan for adolescents, especially girls, in the Tenth Five Year Plan- Goal 3
  • National Literacy Mission to provide functional literacy to all illiterate adults in the age group 15-35 years – Goal 3 and 4
Achieve sustainable threshold level of 75 percent literacy by 2007
  • Special schemes targeted at girls, apart from focus on girls in general scheme _ Goal 5
  • Removal of all disparities, including gender, in primary (class I-V) by 2007 and elementary (I-VIII) by 2010

Source: Education for All- National Plan of Action India, Department of Elementary Education and Literacy, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, New Delhi

sarva shiksha abhiyan
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
  • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) - A National Programme for Universalization of Elementary Education launched in 2001
  • Goals of SSA:
    • All children in school by 2003
    • All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007
    • All children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010
    • Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality
    • Bridge all gender and social category gaps
    • Universal retention by 2010
some concerns
Some Concerns

Challenges that need to be addressed

pre school education
Pre-School Education
  • Still a Small effort - part of the ICDS Programme

Its package of services include supplementary nutrition, immunisation, health check-up, referral services, non formal pre-school education and community participation for children below six years and to pregnant and nursing mothers.

  • Early Childhood Education component has been rather poor.
  • The coverage is very uneven across the different parts of the country.
  • Overall government investment in the programme has been inadequate.
  • ICDS has focused on quantity rather than quality, expanding rapidly in terms of geographical coverage while underfunding inputs, in particular the training of frontline service providers.
  • The targeting of children up to three years of age has been particularly poor, and the coverage of the most vulnerable households in communities covered by the project has been inadequate.
  • it has tended to be almost exclusively government owned and managed, with limited involvement of the public and the health and education bureaucracies.
  • the programme has failed to replicate the successes of other early childhood development programmes of both the government and non-governmental organizations in the country, mainly because of rigidities in personnel and programming approaches.
huge increase in demand for primary schooling
Huge increase in demand for primary schooling
  • Enrolment drives
  • Total literacy campaigns
  • Incentives such as textbooks, midday meals, dry rations, scholarships
  • Govt under pressure to appoint more teachers, build more schools, but without allocating sufficient resources
An estimated 95 percent of the rural population living in 8,26,000 habitations have a primary school within one km

85 percent population have an upper primary school within three km.

176,523 habitations did not have access to primary schooling

system of para teachers
System of para-teachers


  • Basically a contract teacher
  • To be a local person
  • Appointed by the panchayat
  • Minimum qualification – class 8
  • Paid a stipend between Rs 500-1200
  • To be trained


alternate schools
Alternate Schools
  • To deal with dropouts, working children, migrant children, never enrolled girls
  • Flexible duration, location, curriculum
  • Children in groups according to their own pace
  • Para-teachers have already formed a union and are fighting for regularisation
social disparities still resilient
Social disparities still resilient
  • Local teachers were often found to belong to the dominant caste groups, displaying discriminatory attitudes to tribal children similar to formal school teachers
  • Functional AS/EGS schools are found to be dominated by the more powerful castes in the village such as the OBCs while tribal children go to the dysfunctional primary school
private schools for the less privileged
Private schools for the less privileged
  • Increasingly thought of as an important part of the solution to the problem of schooling for all
  • Private schools are not a homogeneous category
  • Private schools for the poor had

-Congested, poky rooms

-Untrained, poorly qualified teachers

-Excessive reliance on rote learning

-No use of teaching aids

average cost of sending a child to primary school
Average cost of sending a child to Primary school

Government Private

  • Fees 16 296
  • Non Fee

expenditure 302 644

  • Total 318 940

Source: PROBE Team (1999, parents estimates).

financing of basic education
Financing of Basic Education
  • Increased Investment is Critical - If UEE is to be made a reality in India there is a need to increase the investment in education to 6.0 % of the GDP .
  • But, effective utilization of finances is equally a challenging task
  • Need for building professional capability among managers at the decentralized levels in State Education Departments
  • Though the 2002-2003 budget accorded priority to elementary it is only 3.8 % of the GDP
efa advocacy and political mobilization
EFA Advocacy and Political Mobilization
  • Basic Education is still not on the top of the Political Agenda of the country
  • Need to strengthen the voice of the civil society as well as the professional capability to mould public opinion
  • Build people-to-people contact and professional networking across the country
efforts by ngos independent groups
Efforts by NGOs/independent groups
  • There a large number of initiatives on a range of issues (such as pedagogy, policy, child labour, budgetary analysis)
  • Efforts at the local, state and national levels
  • Most of these efforts are working with different approaches and independent of each other

The Probe Team, CYSD – social watch,


To name just a few………….

govt ngo collaboration
Govt –NGO collaboration
  • NGOs are looked upon as agents for implementation of government programmes
  • If/When invited for policy deliberations – their concerns/recommendations not necessarily incorporated in the policies
  • Which NGOs are invited – generally those who are partners of the govt – not too critical of the govt policies and implementation strategies
  • Sometimes consulted only due the pressure of the donor agencies
gaps identified cef way forward
Girl child education

Strengthening Community participation

Collaboration with state government

Issues of quality, access, retention

Reaching the unreached-issues around disparity

Financing education

Bringing various stakeholders tog. on the issue of education

Policy advocacy two pronged strategy

-policy advocacy at the centre/state level

-Model building as a tool for policy advocacy

Gaps identified CEF Way forward
criteria one
Criteria one

a)Strengthening civil society participation

-Communitization of education

-Setting up of the working group for the WSF4

b)education for democracy

c) Media advocacy and networking

c)Systematic review of the laws/policies that deny the children their basic rights to Basic Education.

-critiquing Manual for planning and implementation of Inclusive education

-Concept note schools s night shelters for street children

- setting up of a working group to advocate for child rights

criteria 2
Criteria 2
  • Network serving 200,000 children –tracking achievements of SSA
  • Setting up of the National Resource Facility
  • Bringing out the Education Outlook
  • Network of 2400 NGOs on planning of DEEP – thus influencing budgets at the district level
criteria 3
Criteria 3

Model building for policy advocacy /influencing

Inclusive quality education for the left out children

-education for the children without adult care and protection

-education for the differently abled children

-education for tribal and SC/ST

governance management
Governance & Management

Advisory Group

Management Committee


fund flow and monitoring
Fund flow and Monitoring

Action Aid and CEF







quarter reporting narrative and financial
Quarter ReportingNarrative and Financial



One of the three agencies