THE FALL OF ROME
THE PROBLEMS IN ROME • During the third century A.D. all THREE sources of prosperity that existed during PAX ROMANA disappeared: • Trade collapsed • Loss of Money • Farms were falling apart and grain was no longer being produced.
WHAT DID ROME DO TO TRY AND FIX THE PROBLEMS? • They raised taxes to try an get more money and they starting minting coins that contained less silver. • This led to INFLATION: Value of money goes DOWNprices of goods goesUP
MORE SERIOUS PROBLEMS IN ROME: • Lack of fertility (farms) • Farmers begin to abandon farms because of the high taxes • Slave labor discouraged the use of technology • Food shortages • Disease • War • Lack of Loyalty in the Military
THE MILITARY FALLS APART In the army discipline and loyalty collapsed! Soldiers were no longer loyal to Rome. The government began to recruit Mercenaries:Foreign soldiers who fought for money. They accepted little pay for service but were not loyal to Rome.
Politics Fall Apart • Romans had once considered holding political office an honor. By the 200’s few chose to serve in the government. Only the army remained interested in politics. In a 50 year period – 50 generals were emperors of Rome.
Rome Hangs on For Another 200 Years with the Help of Reformers CONSTANTINE • Gained control of the Western part of Diocletian’s empire and continued many of his reforms. • A.D. 330 he moved the capital EAST from Rome to the Greek city of Byzantium – this new location was centrally located for trade. • He named the new city after himself: Constantinople. DIOCLETIAN • Governed as absolute • Ruler, gave no freedoms • Doubled the size of the Roman armies • set fixed prices for goods to try and stop inflation. • Ordered farmers to stay on their land and other workers to stay in their jobs for life. • Persecuted Christians • Divided the Empire in half – East and West because he thought it was too big to control
Why did the Germanic Tribes Invade? Germanic tribes were moving away from the invading HUNS. Fleeing from the HUNS they pushed into Roman territory.
Who were the Huns? • Fierce Mongol nomads from central Asia.They began invading the regions of the Rhine and Danube rivers around 370 A.D., destroying all in their path! Who was Attila? The Huns powerful Chieftain
Rome’s Last Emperor: Who Was He? How Did He Lose His Throne? A 14-year-old boy named Romulus Augustulus. In 476 AD he was deposed by a German general named Odoacer and sent into exile.
How was Rome Divided After It’s Fall? WEST EAST BYZANTINE EMPIRE ROMAN EMPIRE
ROME’S LEGACY: Greco-Roman Culture: A mixture of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman culture. This time period is also called classical civilization. Roman artists, philosophers and writers did not merely copy Greek and Hellenistic models, they adapted it for their own purposes.
ROME’S LEGACY: Fine Arts: Romans created realistic sculptures and Roman art was practical in purpose and intended for education. • The Romans also created mosaics – pictures or designs made by setting small pieces of stone, glass or tile onto a surface. • The Romans also excelled in the art of painting.
ROME’S LEGACY Literature: Romans borrowed much of their philosophy from the Greeks. Stoicism, the philosophy from the teacher Zeno, was very influential. “In the midst of it all, you must take your stand, good temperedly and without disdain.”
ROME’S LEGACY: Virgil: Wrote Latin Literature, including Aeneid – written to praise Rome and Roman virtues. Tacitus: A Roman historian noted for presenting historical facts accurately. He wrote the Annals and Histories – a discussion about the good and the bad aspects of the Roman Empire
ROME’S LEGACY Aqueducts: Designed by Roman engineers to bring water from the rivers to the farms.
ROME’S LEGACY Roman Law System: Rome’s most lasting contribution. The Romans believed that laws should be fair and equal to all people. • People had the right to equal treatment • Innocent until proven guilty • Burden of proof rested on the accuser • Person should be punished for actions, not thoughts • Laws that were unfair could be removed