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Sounds of English . Class 2. Sounds of English. Consonants: first, the stops: b as in bat, sob , cubby d as in date, hid, ado g as in gas, lag, ragged p as in pet, tap, repeat t as in tap, pet, attack k as in king, pick, picking. When we need to emphasize

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Sounds of english1
Sounds of English

Consonants: first, the stops:

  • b as in bat, sob, cubby

  • d as in date, hid, ado

  • g as in gas, lag, ragged

  • p as in pet, tap, repeat

  • t as in tap, pet, attack

  • k as in king, pick, picking

When we need to emphasize

that we are using a phonetic

transcription, we put square

brackets [b] around the symbols.


More consonants fricatives
More consonants: fricatives

  • f as in fail, life

  • v as in veil, live

  • Ɵ as in thin, wrath

  • ð as in this, bathe

  • s as in soft, miss

  • z as in zoo, as

  • š (American) or ʃ (IPA) as in shame, mash

  • ž (American) or ǯ (IPA)as in triage, garage, azure,

  • h as in help, vehicular


Affricates
affricates

  • č (American) or tʃ (IPA) as in cheap, hatch

  • ǰ (American) or ʤ(IPA) as in jump, hedge


Nasal consonants
nasal consonants

  • m as in map, him

  • n as in knot, tin (alveolar POA)

  • ñ as in canyon

  • ŋ as in sing, gingham, dinghy


Liquids
Liquids

  • l as in large, gull

  • r as in red, jar


Glides and semi consonants
glides and semi-consonants

  • j (IPA) as in boy, yellow

  • w as in wall, cow


Sounds of english

  • 6 stops

  • 2 affricates

  • 9 fricatives

  • 4 nasals

  • 2 liquids

  • 2 glides


Short vowels

Front vowels:

I as in bit

Ɛ as in bet

æ as in bat

Back vowels:

U as in put

ʌ as in putt

ɔ as in bought

a or ɑ as in Mott, ma, spot

ǝ“schwa” as in about

Short vowels


Long vowels
Long vowels

  • ij or i as in beet

  • ej as in bait

  • aj as in bite

  • oj as in boy

  • uw or u as in boot

  • ow as in boat

  • aw as in how


Not all americans talk the same way
Not all Americans talk the same way

  • Some people do not have a contrast between [ɔ] and [a]:

  • cot versus caught

  • Sean versus Connery.

  • There are (interesting) details we are ignoring, like the difference between the vowel in cat and that in sand, for most Americans.

  • There are far more differences than that, of course!


Review where we ve been
Review where we’ve been

  • We’ve listened to the sounds of “our” English, and assigned a set of symbols to them.

  • We abstracted away from pitch, loudness, and duration.

  • We hope to better understanding our language’s sounds by analyzing them as being composed of a sequence of identifiable sounds, each of which occurs frequently in words of the language.


Consonants
Consonants

  • Consonants = obstruents + sonorants

    • Obstruents: (oral) stops, affricates, and fricatives

    • Sonorants: nasals and liquids (l,r)


Consonants1
Consonants

Consonants can be defined by:

Point of articulation (or “place”): Specification of the active and passive articulators.

Manner of articulation:

Oral stop; nasal stop; fricative; affricate; lateral; flap; approximant; and some others.


Consonants have a point of articulation
Consonants have a point of articulation

The crucial points of articulation for English consonants are:

  • Labial

  • Labio-dental

  • Dental

  • Alveolar: at the alveolar ridge, behind the teeth

  • Post-alveolar/palato-alveolar/alveopalatal: multiple names for the same thing

  • Retroflex (r only)

  • Palatal (y, ñ)

  • Velar

  • Laryngeal


Sounds of english

Places of articulation: labial

  • Bilabial: made with two lips

    (pie, buy, my)

  • Labiodental: lower tip and

    Upper front teeth (fie, vie).

Slide from Liberman and Yuan


Sounds of english

Places of articulation: coronal

  • Dental: tongue tip or blade and upper front teeth (thigh, thy). (interdental: the tip of the tongue protrudes between the upper and the lower front teeth).

  • Alveolar: tongue tip or blade and the alveolar ridge (tie, die, nigh, sigh, zeal, lie).

  • Retroflex: tongue tip and back of the alveolar ridge (rye, row, ray).

  • Palato-Alveolar (post-alveolar): tongue blade and the back of the alveolar ridge (shy, she, show).

Slide from Liberman and Yuan


Sounds of english

Places of articulation: dorsal

  • Palatal: front of the tongue and hard palate (you). Palatal sounds are sometimes classified as coronal.

  • Velar: back of the tongue and the soft palate (hack, hag, hang).

Slide from Liberman and Yuan


Sounds of english

Oro-nasal process

[From: Dan Jurafsky slide]

Oral sounds: soft palate

is raised (closing the passage).

Nasal sound: soft palate is

lowered, so air passes through

the nose.


Manners of articulation
Manners of articulation

  • Stop

  • Fricative: near closure, creating frication (heavy air turbulence)

  • Affricate (combined stop and fricative)

  • Approximant (no turbulence) (y,w,r)

  • Lateral approximant (l) obstruction in the middle, air passage around the side of the tongue.

  • Tap or flap: American symbol [D], IPA [ɾ]


Sounds of english

Obstruents:

  • 6 stops

  • 9 fricatives

  • 2 affricates

  • Nasals (4)

  • 2 other sonorants (what are they?)

  • 2 glides


Vowels
Vowels

  • Vowels are harder to characterize articulatorily, but we try!

  • The fact that it’s harder is reflected in the fact that there is more than one way in which it’s done. IPA is one way; American is another.


Sounds of english


Sounds of english

From: Jennifer Venditti slide corresponding only roughly to the position of the tongue, and the first two formants of the vowel.


Sounds of english
IPA corresponding only roughly to the position of the tongue, and the first two formants of the vowel.


Two systems side by side
Two systems side by side corresponding only roughly to the position of the tongue, and the first two formants of the vowel.


The end
the end corresponding only roughly to the position of the tongue, and the first two formants of the vowel.


A phonetic chart based on the first two formants
A phonetic chart based on the first two formants corresponding only roughly to the position of the tongue, and the first two formants of the vowel.


Sounds of english

From: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/music/vocres.html


Sounds of english

/i/ http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/music/vocres.htmlgreen

/ae/ hat

/u/ boot

graphics thanks to

Kevin Russell, Univ of Manitoba


Sounds of english

“Hi” /haj/ http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/music/vocres.html

FORMANTS

we were away a year ago