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Phylum Arthropoda. Subphylum Myriapoda Classes Diplopoda & Chilopoda Subpylum Hexapoda Class Insecta . Subphylum Myriapoda. 1 pr antennae 1pr mandibles 2 or 1 pr maxillae uniramous appendages. SP Myriapoda, Class Chilopoda. Centipedes. Scutigera coleoptrata . Cheliped Examples.

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phylum arthropoda

Phylum Arthropoda

Subphylum Myriapoda

Classes Diplopoda & Chilopoda

Subpylum Hexapoda

Class Insecta

subphylum myriapoda
Subphylum Myriapoda
  • 1 pr antennae
  • 1pr mandibles
  • 2 or 1 pr maxillae
  • uniramous appendages
cheliped examples
Cheliped Examples

Scolopendra castaneiceps

millipedes
Millipedes
  • 4 thoracic segments
    • each has 1 pr legs
  • 25-100 abdominal segments
    • each has 2 pr legs
  • Larval stages have 1pr legs/segment
sp hexapoda class insecta
SP Hexapoda, Class Insecta
  • 4 pr feeding appendages (mouthparts)
  • 6 pr walking legs
  • 2 pr flight appendages
    • 2pr wings
    • 1pr wings + 1pr halteres
    • 1pr elytra + 1pr wings
  • No appendages on abdomen
  • Tagmata:
    • Head – 5-7 segments
    • Thorax – 3 segments
    • Abdomen – 8-11 segments
head appendages
Head Appendages

compound eye

antenna

ocelli

mandible

maxillary palp

labrum

maxilla

labium

labial palp

excretory system malpighian tubules
Excretory System – Malpighian Tubules
  • Insects excrete nitrogenous waste in the form of uric acid (urate)
  • Solid uric acid is formed in the rectum by the removal of H2O
holometabolous insects
Holometabolous Insects

Tobacco horn worm Larva of sphinx moth

holometabolous development
Holometabolous Development

Lepidopteran Lifecycle

1-4 instars

beneficial coleopterans
Beneficial Coleopterans

Aphid parasites

1st instar

3rd instar

pupa

Adult

Ladybird Beetle Life Stages

hemimetabolous development
Hemimetabolous Development

hemipteran

Larvae

orthopteran

odonatan

beneficial insects
Beneficial Insects
  • Ichneumon wasps lay eggs in body of beetle & lepidopteran larvae – many of which are plant pests
  • The wasp larvae feed on the host, killing it in the process
insect behavior
Insect Behavior
  • Hymenopterans & Isopterans often show complex social behavior
    • Termite colonies
    • Ant colonies
    • Bee hives
    • Hornets & wasps
  • All have unique genetic/environmental sex determination mechanisms
arthropod evolution
Arthropod Evolution

MUTATIONS IN

REGULATORY GENES CAN GIVE THE PROTEINS NEW

PROPERTIES: UBX

ACQUIRES THE ABILITY to REPRESS

DISTAL-LESS in the

INSECT CLADE

R. Galant and S. B. Carroll,

2002. Nature 415:910.

Ronschaugen, M. et al.

2002. Nature 415: 914.

.

arthropod evolution34
Arthropod Evolution

Mutation of the ultrabithorax gene

arthropod evolution36
Arthropod Evolution
  • Paleozoic insect fossils – show ties to crustacean morphology

Wing primordia arose from thoracic gills

3 pr of Biramous appendages