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Modern China: A Capsule History. The Impact of the West on 19 th and 20 th Century China. The Manchu Conquest of China: 1644. Imposition of the Queue. Manchu conquest of Taiwan: Koxinga and the anti-Qing rebellion 1661-1683. The Kangxi Emperor: Longest Reigning Chinese Emperor: 1661-1722.

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Modern China: A Capsule History

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modern china a capsule history

Modern China: A Capsule History

The Impact of the West on 19th and 20th Century China

the jesuits and their role



Weapons manufacturers



Matteo Ricci

The Jesuits and their role
the opium war the most disreputable war britain eve fought gladstone
The Opium War: “The most disreputable War Britain eve fought” Gladstone
  • Motivation: the British thirst for tea and trade
  • Destabilization: Payment in silver as China wanted nothing the British produced
  • Problem: Imbalance in trade
  • Solution: Illegal importation of Opium into China
the treaty of nanjing 1842 first unequal treaty
The Treaty of Nanjing: 1842: First Unequal Treaty
  • Cede Island of Hong Kong in perpetuity
  • Open 5 pots to trade: Guangzhou (Canton), Xiamen (Amoy), Foochow (Fuzhou), Ningpo (Ningbo), Shanghai.
  • Pay 21 Million dollars reparations
  • Extraterritoriality
  • Most Favored Nation Clause
second opium war causes
Second Opium War: Causes
  • Desire for free trade
  • Desire to travel in interior
  • Desire for missionary activity
  • Desire for legalization of opium
  • Desire for diplomatic relations
treaties of tianjin and aigun
Treaties of Tianjin and Aigun
  • Europeans right to have legations in Beijing
  • 10 cities opened for trade and residence
  • Foreign ships navigate freely on Yangtse river
  • Foreigners right to travel, trade, and proselytize in China
  • 6 million dollar indemnity
  • Russia got the maritime Province
convention of beijing second unequal treaty 1860
Convention of Beijing: second unequal treaty 1860
  • Confirm Tianjin Treaty
  • Cede Kowloon to Britain
  • Open Tianjin as treaty port
  • Chinese laborers allowed to emigrate overseas
rebellions taiping nian muslim 1850 1878
Rebellions: Taiping, Nian, Muslim: 1850-1878
  • Transfer of power from Manchus to Chinese
  • Transfer of power from Center to provinces
  • Weakening of Central government
  • Allowing further Western Imperialism
  • Awakening desire for change among Chinese youth
  • Sense of doom among youth
cixi and the maintenance of power
Balancing act

Position as regent

Raising fear of foreigners and Chinese

Personal friendship

Bestowal of favors

Cixi and the maintenance of power
the sino japanese war 1895
The Sino-Japanese War: 1895
  • Li Hong Zhang Shimonoseki
treaty of shimonoseki
Treaty of Shimonoseki
  • Cession of Taiwan to Japan
  • 200 million dollar indemnity
  • China recognize independence of Korea
  • Cede Liaodong Peninsula to Japan (reversed by Triple Intervention by Russia, France and Germany)
  • Open more ports and rivers to trade
the boxer rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion
  • A Boxer and the International Relief force
sun s three principles of the people san min zhu yi
Sun’s Three Principles of the People: San Min Zhu Yi
  • Nationalism: Min Zu
  • Democracy: Min Quan
  • Socialism (people’s welfare): Min Sheng
the accidental revolution 1912 the end of the imperial system and the establishment of a republic
The Accidental Revolution: 1912: The end of the imperial system and the establishment of a Republic
  • Yuan Shi Kai becomes President
mao zedong as a young man
Founding member of CCP

Reinterpreter of Leninism for Chinese conditions

Interested in the peasants

Mao Zedong as a Young Man
end of the first united front in shanghai
End of the first United Front in Shanghai
  • Nationalists turned on the Communists and massacred them in Shanghai
  • Resulted in split of the Nationalist party
  • Renewed civil war against the Communists
  • Communists in city virtually destroyed
  • Mao flees to countryside in Jinggangshan
The End of the Anti-Japanese War and the Continuation of the Civil War between the Nationalists and Communists
jiang jie shi chiang kai shek fled to taiwan
Jiang Jie Shi (Chiang Kai Shek) fled to Taiwan
  • Jiang’s memorial Hall in Taipei
major events from 1949 to today
Major events from 1949 to Today
  • Rebuilding China
  • Korean War
  • 100 Flowers Movement and Anti-Rightist Campaign
  • Great Leap Forward
  • Invasion of Tibet and flight of Dalai Lama
  • Tension over Taiwan
more events
More events
  • The Sino-Soviet Split: who are China’s Friends
  • The Great Proletarian Revolution
  • Nixon’s visit to China
the new china socialism with chinese characteristics
The New China: “Socialism with Chinese Characteristics”
  • Deng Xiaoping comes to power:
  • “It doesn’t matter if a cat is a white cat or a black cat as long as it catches the mice.”
  • “To Get rich is Glorious”