FACS Unit 4: Clothing and Textiles Mrs. Judy Moore 45 class periods
4.1 Match the terms related to clothing and textiles • See handout
4.2 List the factors to consider in clothing selections • Individual wants and needs • Resources • Lifestyle • Climate • Suitability of garment for the individual • Peer Influence • Fashion Trends • Advertising • Cultural Traditions
4.2.1 Determine factors that affect clothing selections Planning a wardrobe: • Wardrobe--all the clothing you have to wear • Accessory--shoes, purses, ties, scarves, hats, gloves, jewelry • Building a wardrobe • Replace basic items that are worn-out • Add mix and match garments • Update with accessories • Build up a weak area of wardrobe
Determine factors that affect clothing selections Design • Express personal identity • Outward personality • bold colors • large/exciting prints • bold/many accessories • tend to wear fad items
Determine factors that affect clothing selections • Classic personality • tailored clothing • small patterns • minimum accessories **Classic, understated dress often indicates that a person is secure and self-confident. Classic dress works well for a job interview.**
Determine factors that affect clothing selections • Natural Personality • neutral colors • soft lines • minimum accessories **Persons with athletic ability and/or interest in the outdoors often choose natural styles.**
Determine factors that affect clothing selections • Choose clothing appropriate for special occasions • work, school, social occasions, climate, community • keep in mind the nonverbal message your clothing is sending to others
Determine factors that affect clothing selections • Quality • Are all stitches straight and even? • Are seam edges finished to prevent raveling? • Is the fabric cut with the grain? • Are plaids, stripes, and large designs matched at the seams? • Are points of strain reinforced? • Are interfacings used for proper shape? • Do buttonholes appear sturdy and free of raveling?
Determine factors that affect clothing selections • Quality, continued: • Are zippers inserted neatly, and do they work smoothly? • Are buttons and accessories suitable for garment? • Are the seam allowances and hems wide enough for future adjustments? • Are the hemming stitches inconspicuous on the right side of the garments?
Determine factors that affect clothing selections • Clothing Care • Proper care of clothes helps assure a neat personal appearance. • Take care not to damage or soil your clothing • Open fasteners so that clothing slips off easily without putting strain on any part of the garment. • Launder properly
LAUNDERY TECHNIQUES • Read labels • contain correct procedures for regular maintenance • required by Federal law • Sort clothes • Done to prevent damage to other clothing articles • Sort by color, fabric, surface texture and degree of soil • Prepare clothes for laundering • Remove excess soil • Check pockets • Fasten fasteners • mend any rips to prevent them from becoming larger • Pre-treat stains and heavy soil • treat promptly • rinse from the back side to push stain out • test products on underside of hem or facing to prevent discoloration
Laundry Techniques • Laundry Products • Soap--are made with fats • react with the mineral in hard water • form white cloudy curds which float through water • these curds cling to fabrics making clothing look dull and dingy • Detergents--petroleum products • may be low sudsing or high sudsing • easier to get brighter wash than by using soap • don’t use on wool--digests protein in wool • Chlorine bleach--used to remove stains in whites and to disinfect • can cause damage if poured directly on fabric
Laundry Techniques • Oxygen bleach--removes stains and whitens clothes through use of ultraviolet dyes • safe for all washable fibers • should be used regularly to keep clothes white and bright • Water softeners--neutralize calcium and magnesium ions found in hard water • a ring around the bathtub or sink after water is drained is a sign of hard water • water softener keeps clothes from looking dull and gray • softener may be added before the soap or detergent is added • Fabric Softeners--makes fabrics soft and fluffy • helps control wrinkling • controls static electricity • can be a liquid used in rinse cycle or sheet added to dryer • read infant’s clothing before adding/can change flammability rating
Laundry Techniques • Using washing machine • distribute items evenly for good cleaning action • don’t overfill • select a wash cycle suitable for the wash load • select temperatures that will accommodate all articles in wash • Using dryer • items can be dried on line • not recommended in smoggy areas • suitable method of most fabrics/may need to iron • Drying flat--reduces stretching and prevents shrinking • Tumble drying--gas or electric dryers • permanent press--moderate heat to reduce wrinkles • regular cycle--for items not heat sensitive • air fluff--used to freshen items
Laundry Techniques, continued. • Ironing--a process of moving an iron across fabric to smooth wrinkles. • Done after a garment has been laundered • Pressing--a process of lifting the iron up and down to apply pressure in one area of a garment at a time. • Pressing is done as you sew to mold a garment to fit the curves of your body • Done to touch up areas of garments after they have been laundered
Laundering Techniques, continued. • Pressing rules: • use proper setting for fabric type to prevent scorching or melting • test on underside if not certain of proper temperature • iron along the lengthwise grain of fabric to keep from stretching garment out of shape • use a pressing cloth on wool, velvet or any other fabric that might develop a shine.
Laundering Techniques, continued • Dry Cleaning • used for delicate items • tell dry cleaner about stains and spots so they can pre-treat • can request that sizing be added to a limp garment • water repellent can be restored (only recommended method of cleaning of water repellent items) • specific technique required for cleaning leather (can be costly) • need to consider cost of cleaning method before buying clothing because cleaning method adds to final cost of garment
4.3 Describe ways to create special effects in clothing selection by using the elements and principles of design • Elements of Design: • Vertical lines--make the body seem taller • Horizontal lines--lead the eye across body, making it seem broader • Bulky textures--add apparent size • Smooth texture --takes away from apparent size • Shiny texture--gives the illusion of increased size • Subtle pattern--gives the illusion of a solid color • Bold Patterns--draws attention and adds size • Round or square shapes--increase size • Tubular shape--taller and slimmer • Cool colors--reduce size • Warm colors--increase size
4.3 Describe ways to create special effects in clothing selection by using the elements and principles of design • Round or square shapes--increase size • Tubular shape--taller and slimmer • Cool colors--reduce size • Warm colors--increase size
4.3 Describe ways to create special effects in clothing selection by using the elements and principles of design • Principles of Design • Proportion--If you make one part of body look long, wide, or large, then another section will appear shorter, narrower or smaller. • Emphasis--is the point of interest that your eyes see first. Use to draw attention to your best feature. • Harmony--the feeling that all parts of a design belong together • must have something in common such as style, shape, color or size.
4.3 Describe ways to create special effects in clothing selection by using the elements and principles of design • Rhythm--the feeling of movement, leads the eye around the garment • repeating color or shape in accessories or design features • Balance--feeling of equal weight • Symmetrical balance--like a mirror reflection of the other side • Asymmetrical balance--two sides of the garment are different in size, form, texture, color • Scale--refers to the overall size of a design detail or its size compared to other details • small prints for small person • larger prints for larger person
4.4 List the factors to consider in evaluating a garment according to basic construction techniques • Correct stitch length is used • Stress areas are reinforced • Buttonholes are well-made • Fasteners should be applied to at least three layers to keep them from pulling out • Stripes and plaids match • Seams should be smooth and flat • Garment should be free of imperfections • Hem is straight and even
4.5 State the guidelines for selection and use of clothing accessories • Enhance personal features • Adds interest to garment • Reflects fashion trends • Too many accessories make a garment look busy
4.6 Describe care and storage techniques for clothing and accessories • A. Storage for in-season clothing • Note:In-season clothes are those worn at the present time. • Avoid overcrowding closets and drawers • Group similar items together in closets and drawers. Examples:Socks, underwear, shirts, pants, jackets. • Use drawer dividers, silverware trays, and shoe boxes to organize drawer space. • Double closet space by hanging one rod above another • Hang similar lengths together
Accessories, storage Example:Gloves,scarves,caps Mount small hook or tie rack on closet door or walls to hold small items. Example:Ties, belts, scarves, necklaces Store small items in storage bags pockets. Example:Socks, belts,(rolled up), shoe polish supplies, care labels, extra buttons and yarns that come attached to garments. Store seldom-worn items in boxes under the bed or on top shelf of closet.
4.7 Chart the natural and synthetic fibers with sources of each • Natural Fibers • Cotton • Wool • Flax ( Linen) • Ramie • Silk
4.7 Chart the natural and synthetic fibers with sources of each • Note: there are many types of manufactured fibers, these are the most common types • Acetate • Acrylic • Modacrylic • Nylon • Olefin • Polyester • Rayon • Spandex • Triacetate
4.8 State the factors to consider when selecting a pattern • Determine type of garment to be constructed. Examples: Casual, formal, warm weather garment, cool weather garment. • Study pattern catalogs to become familiar with sections and information provided. Examples: Measurement charts, pattern illustrations for different figure types, skill development sections. • Select correct pattern type and size. • Choose a pattern with design lines that enhance one’s body shape.
Select a pattern suitable for personal sewing skills. • Example: Select an “easy-to-sew” pattern for beginning projects. • Choose more complicated patterns as sewing skills become more advanced. • **Note: Trying to use patterns that are too difficult often causes one to feel discouraged and displeased with the finished garment.
4.9 Name the steps in determining pattern type and size • A.Take body measurements. • B.Select figure type. • C.Select pattern size.
4.10 Designate the specific information found on a pattern envelope • Envelope front Figure Type (optional) Pattern Size Price of Pattern Pattern number Front view(s) of pattern Name of pattern company
B. Envelope back Figure type Pattern number Number of pattern pieces in envelope Detailed description of finished garment. Sketches of back views of pattern Body measurements and size charts Amount of fabric required for each pattern size. Suggested fabrics for pattern
Specific instructions for different types of fabric Examples: Extra yardage needed for napped fabrics; not suitable for diagonals,checks, strips,and plaids. Notions needed for each view Examples: Buttons,zippers,snaps,hooks and eyes,trims,thread,elastic,cording Name of pattern company
4.11 State questions to consider when choosing fabric for selected pattern • A. Is fabric suitable for selected pattern? • Note: A list of suitable fabrics is found on each pattern envelope. • B. Is fabric appropriate for individual? • Examples: Color enhances personal clothing; lines, prints, and textures, are suitable for body size and shape.
C. Is fabric suitable for expectations of garment. • Examples: Durable,washable fabrics for active sportswear; knitted fabric for active wear; firmly woven, medium weight fabrics for professional suits. • D. Is fabric washable? • E. How much will fabric cost? • F. Will fabric be easy to handle?
G. Are woven fabrics “on-grain” or easy to straighten? • Woven fabrics is “on-grain” when lengthwise and crosswise yarns fall at right angles to each other, • H. Is fabric durable? • Fabric should be strong enough for intended use. • I. Will fabric be comfortable? • Note:Fabrics characteristics such as absorbency, breath ability, and stretch ability, affect wearing comfort. • J. Is Fabric free of flaws? • Note: Check before yardage is cut.
4.12 Explain the procedure for calculating yardage for a specific garment • A. Determine size of pattern to be used. • B. Choose view of pattern to be constructed. • C. Determine fabric width. • Note: Fabric width is the distance across the fabric from one selvage to the other. Typical fabric widths are 36-inch, 45-inch, and 60-inch. • D. Refer to chart on back of pattern envelope to determine needed yardage.
4.13 List the factors to consider when choosing notions • A. Refer to back of pattern envelope for list of needed notions. • B. Purchase notions when fabric and pattern are purchased, when possible. • C. Check labels to be sure that care requirements for notions and fabrics are the same. • D.Check yardage chart on back of pattern envelope to determine needed yardage for notions to be purchased by the yard.
E. Choose notions suitable for weight of fabric. • F. Select notions suitable for fashion fabric and garment design. • Sewing Machine thread • Serger thread • Zippers • Trim • Interfacing • Buttons • Elastic • Snaps and hooks-and-eyes.
4.14 Identify basic sewing equipment and use of each • A. Measuring • Tape measure- Used to take body measurements. • French curve-Used for drawing curves areas when making or altering patterns • Dressmaker’s ruler-Measures and marks short, straight lines • Seam-Gauge--Used for measuring short distances.
Skirt marker- Used to measure and mark hemlines of garments with either chalk or pins. Hem gauge-Used for measuring and pressing hems. B. Pinning Pins-Used for laying out pattern pieces, holding two layers of fabric together while stitching, and marking hemlines. Pin cushions-Hold pins and needles that are inserted into the padded area. Magnetic pin holder-Holds pins magnetically on an open surface.
C. Cutting Dressmaker shears-Used for cutting large pieces of fabric. Pinking shears- Used to finish seam edges on firmly woven fabric. Sewing scissors-Used to trim an grade seams, clip curves, and cut into corners. Appliqué scissors-Used to grade seams and trim close to edge stitching. Embroidery scissors-Used for detail work such as cutting threads, ripping stitches, and opening buttons. Seam ripper-Used for ripping out stitching.
Thread clippers-Used to clip thread ends for stitches. Rotary cutter-Cuts fabric, leather, vinyl, film, and paper as it is rolled along the cutting board. D. Marking Tailor’s Chalk-Use for making fabric. Marking pen-Makes marks on fabrics similar to ink marks. Tracing paper-Used with tracing wheel to transfer pattern markings to fabric. Tracing wheel-Used with tracing paper to transfer pattern markings to fabric.
E. Stitching • Needles-Use for hand sewing. • Thimble-Used to push needle through fabric and protect finger while sewing by hand. • Needle threader-Used to facilitate the process of threading a needle.
G. Miscellaneous • Point turner-Used for pushing out points of collars, cuffs,etc. • Bodkin-Used for inserting elastic or drawing in casings. • Collar point and tube turner-Used for turning points quickly. • Loop turner-Used to turn bias tubing or cording for decorative trim
4.15 Identify basic pressing equipment and use of each • Pressing Equipment • Iron-Use for pressing and ironing. • Ironing board-Used under an iron for ironing or pressing garments. • Press cloth- Placed between iron and fabric to protect fabric from shine and the iron from fusible resins.
Blocking board-Used as a surface for straightening fabric, cutting out garment pieces, and pressing. • Sleeve board-Used for pressing narrow areas which cannot fit over end of ironing board. • Point presser- Used for pressing corners and points. • Tailor’s ham-Used to press curved areas of a garment such as curved seams and darts.
Seam roll- Used for pressing seams open so seam allowance does not show through to right side of fabric. Press mitt-Used, as it fits over the hand, for pressing hard-to-reach areas. Pounding block-Used to flatten seam edges on bulky fabrics. Needle board-Used as a surface for pressing fabric with a pile.