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DRUG CALCULATIONS. MAKING IT EASY . CLASS OUTLINE. 1) review roman numerals 2) review apothecary measurements 3) review conversions 4) review 3 steps to dosage calculations 5) practice, practice, practice . Plugging in to Memory. Roman Numerals. APOTHECARY MEASURES.

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drug calculations

DRUG CALCULATIONS

MAKING IT EASY

class outline
CLASS OUTLINE
  • 1) review roman numerals
  • 2) review apothecary measurements
  • 3) review conversions
  • 4) review 3 steps to dosage calculations
  • 5) practice, practice, practice
plugging in to memory
Plugging in to Memory
  • Roman Numerals
apothecary measures
APOTHECARY MEASURES
  • What are we talking about?
conversions
CONVERSIONS
  • - WITHIN SYSTEMS
  • - BETWEEN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS
within systems
WITHIN SYSTEMS
  • MEMORIZE:
  • 1 gram (g or G) = 1000 milligrams (mg)
  • 1 liter (l or L) = 1000 milliliters (ml or mL)
  • 3 teaspoons (t) = 1 tablespoon (T)
  • 1 cubic centimeter (cc) = 1 milliliter (ml)
between systems
BETWEEN SYSTEMS
  • MEMORIZE:
  • 1 gram (G, GM, gm) = 15 grains (gr)
  • 60 milligrams (mg) = 1 grain (gr)
  • 1 tablespoon (T) = 15 ml
  • 1 kilogram (kg) = 2.2 pounds (lb)
  • 1 ounce (oz) = 30 ml or 30 cc
  • 1 cc = 15 drops (gtt) or 15 minims (mx)
  • 1 inch (in) = 2.5 centimeters (cm)
within systems9
WITHIN SYSTEMS
  • 1) Write down what you know in a ration or fraction format:
    • Example: 1 Gram
    • 1000 milligrams
slide10
2) Write down what you desire in a ratio or fraction format to complete the proportion:
  • Example: 3 Grams
  • x milligrams
slide11
Remember:
  • The numerator and denominator must be the same unit of measurement
  • The unknown value is referred to as “x”
the completed proportion
The completed proportion:
  • 1 Gram3 Grams
  • 1000 mg : : x milligrams
  • Cross multiply
slide13
1 GM x X mg(s) = 3 GM x 1000 mg
  • Drop the terms used for units of measurement: 1 X = 3(1000)
  • Solve for X: divide both sides of the equation by the number preceding X:
  • X = 3000
  • 1 1 X = 3000
between systems14
BETWEEN SYSTEMS
  • 1) Write down what you know in a fraction format:
  • 15 grains
  • 1 gram
slide16
2) Complete the proportion by writing down what you desire:
  • 15 grains30 grains
  • 1 gram : : X grams
  • HINT: Keep the units of measurements in the correct spaces!
slide17
Drop the units of measurement
  • Cross multiply
  • 15 x X = 30 x 1
  • 15X = 30
  • Solve for X: Divide each side by the number in front of X : 1 X = 2 ANS: 2 Grams
3 steps to dosage calculation
3 STEPS TO DOSAGE CALCULATION:
  • 1) Convert to units of same system and similar unit
  • 2) STOP AND THINK
  • 3) Desired over amount on hand times quantity
  • EX: desired
  • amount on hand x quantity
sample problems
SAMPLE PROBLEMS
  • 1) Convert: 300 mg to grams
  • 2) Convert: 120 mg to grains
  • 3) Convert: 30 gr to grams
  • 4) A child who weighs 55 pounds weighs ____
  • kilograms?
slide21
5) A patient is restricted to four 8-ounce glasses of water per day. The nurse knows that the patient’s fluid intake is restricted to ____ mls per day.
  • 6) The nurse administered aspirin gr v. She knew this was equivalent to _____milligrams(s).
slide22
7) Potassium chloride tablets are available in 300 mg doses. The physician prescribed gr v. Give ____ tablet(s).
  • 8) The physician prescribed Capoten, 1.5 grams daily in three equal doses, for hypertension. The nurse would give _____ 1000 mg tablet(s) three times a day.
slide23
9) Lasix 30 mg, IM, is prescribed as a diuretic. Lasix was available as 40 mg/mL. The nurse would give ______mL.
  • 10) Scopolamine 0.3 mg was ordered subcutaneously as a preanesthetic medication. The medication was available in ampules containing grains 1/200 per mL. The nurse would give _____mL.
slide24
11) The physician prescribed 25 mg of Librium, IM. Add 2 mL of diluent to yield 100 mg/2ML. The nurse should give _____ mL.
  • 12) The physican prescribed 5 mg of Garamycin for a child. The medication is available as 20 mgs/mL. To give 5 mg, you would give ____ mL.
practice practice practice
PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE
  • And HOLLER if you need help!