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Chapter 18 Destination Marketing The Globalization of the Tourist Industry. 625 million tourists traveled internationally in 1998 These tourists spent over $444 billion Tourism accounts for 8% of total world exports Tourism employs more people than any single industrial sector

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chapter 18 destination marketing the globalization of the tourist industry
Chapter 18Destination Marketing The Globalization of the Tourist Industry
  • 625 million tourists traveled internationally in 1998
  • These tourists spent over $444 billion
  • Tourism accounts for 8% of total world exports
  • Tourism employs more people than any single industrial sector
  • Tourism has infrastructure (lodging, transportation, and restaurants) investment estimated to exceed $3 trillion.

Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 3e ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc.

Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

the tourism destination
The Tourism Destination
  • Destinations are places with some form of actual or perceived boundary
    • such as the physical boundary of an island
    • political boundaries
  • Macro destinations such as the United States contain thousands of micro destinations
    • including regions
    • states
    • cities
    • towns

Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 3e ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc.

Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

benefits of tourism
Benefits of Tourism
  • Direct employment in hotels, restaurants, retail establishments, and transportation
  • Support industries and professions
  • Multiplier effect as tourist expenditures are recycled through the local economy
  • Tourism helps shift the tax burden to nonresidents

Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 3e ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc.

Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

management of the tourist destination
Management of the Tourist Destination
  • Destinations that fail to maintain the necessary infrastructure or build inappropriate infrastructure run significant risks
  • A destination’s attractiveness can be diminished by
    • violence
    • political instability
    • natural catastrophe
    • adverse environmental factors
    • overcrowding

Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 3e ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc.

Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

sustainable tourism
Sustainable Tourism

Sustainable tourism is a concept of tourism management

that anticipates and prevents problems

that occur when carrying capacity is exceeded

Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 3e ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc.

Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

environmental impact assessment eia
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
  • Inventory the social, political, physical, and economic environments
  • Project trends
  • Set goals and objectives
  • Examine alternatives to reach goals
  • Select preferred alternatives
  • Develop implementation strategy
  • Implement
  • Evaluate

Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 3e ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc.

Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

tourism strategies and investments
Tourism Strategies and Investments

Fierce Competition

  • Rediscovery of a destination’s past
  • Shorter vacations, or long weekends

Investment in Tourist Attractions: Tourism investment ranges from relatively low cost market entry for festivals or events, to multimillion-dollar infrastructure costs of stadiums, transit systems, airports, and convention centers.

  • Destinations must respond to travel basics of cost, convenience, and timeliness.

Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 3e ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc.

Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

psychological determinants of demand
Psychological Determinants of Demand

Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 3e ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc.

Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

identifying target markets
Identifying Target Markets
  • Collect information about current visitors
  • Audit the destination’s attractions and select segments
  • Conduct research to determine where these tourists are found

Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 3e ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc.

Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

classification of visitor segments
Classification of Visitor Segments

Roles and Status Group inclusive tour (GIT)

Roles and Status Independent traveler (IT)

Individual mass tourists

Explorers

Allocentrics

Drifters

Psychocentrics

Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 3e ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc.

Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

slide11

Figure 18-1

Plog’s categorization of destinations

Source:Plog, “Why destinations rise and fall in popularity,” Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 14(4), p.58 copyright 1974 by Cornell University.

Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 3e ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc.

Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

communicating with the tourist market
Communicating with the Tourist Market
  • Image Making
  • Developing packages of attractions and amenities
  • National Tourist Organizations (NTAS)
  • Outside the United States, this agency is often run by the central government, state, or province, together with local government officials.

Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 3e ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc.

Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458