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Chapter 13. North and South. Technology and Industry. By the mid 1800’s the north’s economy now featured industry Machinery now replaced many hand labor jobs Mass production, or producing a large number of goods using an assembly line , became popular. Railway Network.

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chapter 13

Chapter 13

North and South

technology and industry
Technology and Industry
  • By the mid 1800’s the north’s economy now featured industry
  • Machinery now replaced many hand labor jobs
  • Mass production, or producing a large number of goods using an assembly line, became popular
railway network
Railway Network
  • By 1840, the North had some 3,000 miles of railroad track.
  • By 1860 it had 31,000 miles
  • Now goods and people could move faster and cheaper across the nation
  • The west could be settled faster as well (8th grade you will know more)
  • Samuel Morse invented the telegraph, which communicated back and forth using dots and dashes representing the alphabet
  • By 1860, 50,000 miles of telegraph lines were built
other inventions
Other Inventions
  • Steel tipped Plow
  • Steam cylinder rotary press (printing press)
  • Mechanical reaper(made wheat harvesting faster)
northern factories
Northern Factories
  • In Lowell, Massachusetts, a factory system was created.
  • This system was not only for textiles anymore
  • Factories now produced shoes, watches, guns, sewing machines, and agricultural machinery (farm tools)
working conditions
Working Conditions
  • By 1840, the average workday was 11.4 hours
  • On the job accidents became more common
  • Workers often suffered injuries such as lost fingers and broken bones from rapidly spinning belts on factory lines
working conditions 2
Working Conditions 2
  • The machines gave off heat, and air conditioning had not been invented yet (summer conditions were terrible)
  • Because of low wages, workers were forced to live in slums outside factories (worst housing available)
  • Factory owners were more concerned with profits than the safety of the workers.
african american workers
African American Workers
  • Slavery had largely disappeared from the North by 1820.
  • Racial prejudice and discrimination (Unfair treatment of a group based on race) remained.
  • Very few African Americans were allowed to vote in the North. (Blacks could not vote in Penn, and R.I.)
african americans 2
African Americans 2
  • Most towns would not allow blacks to attend public school
  • They were barred from some public facilities as well, (hospitals for example)
  • African Americans had to take the lowest paying jobs. Although free, blacks often did not advance in society. They were very poor, yet better off than in slavery
women workers
Women Workers
  • Employers discriminated against women
  • Male workers did not want women taking their jobs
  • When labor unions formed, they excluded women
  • Most of the early attempts to give women equality in the workplace failed
  • Immigration is the movement of people from one country to another
  • When a famine hit Ireland, Irish Catholics started coming to the U.S. from 1846-1860. (More than a million people died in Ireland)
  • The second largest group that immigrated were Germans, many moved to the midwest
impact of immigration
Impact of Immigration
  • Now Catholics were immigrating to the U.S., especially in the cities of the Northeast.
  • Nativists or people who dislikes immigrants
  • Nativists blamed immigrants from taking the jobs of the “Real Americans”
population shift
Population Shift
  • By 1850, The population had moved from the upper south (Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina) to the deep south (South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Missouri, Arkansas, and Texas
king cotton
King Cotton
  • In colonial times, the leading crop for the South were the tobacco fields in Virginia.
  • Now the new “king crop” was cotton
  • Sugarcane was also grown in Louisiana, but it took large sums of money and irrigation canals to be successful. It was called the “rich mans crop”
king cotton ctd
King Cotton Ctd
  • The cotton gin changed everything. A worker could clean 50 pounds of cotton a day with the machine, instead of 1 pound by hand
  • Because the cotton gin processed cotton fibers so quickly, farmers wanted to grow more cotton
  • The invention led to the need for more slaves.
king cotton ctd19
King Cotton Ctd
  • With Native Americans removed from the South, there was now more room for cotton fields
  • Small farmers without the cotton gin or slaves would have trouble making a profit
  • Large Plantations needed a lot of slave labor to be successful
industry fails in the south
Industry Fails in the South
  • By 1850, the state of Massachusetts had more industry (Factories) than the entire South
  • The South was more rural, (farms) as opposed to the North with large towns and cities (Urban)
  • Cotton was so profitable, Southerners had no desire to build factories
other reasons
Other Reasons
  • Lack of Capital (money) to invest in business
  • Most of the population of the South were poor farmers and slaves (No one to buy the goods)
  • The South did not desire factories or merchandise
poore people
Poore People
  • Not all whites owned land. Tenant farmers rented land from rich landlords.
  • Southerners were embarrassed taking jobs that resembled jobs that enslaved people did
  • Southerners were very proud of being self-sufficient (not needing help from the North)
  • 12% of the plantations held over half of the slaves
  • The goal of the plantation was to make huge profits
  • A large plantation might cover several thousand acres
life under slavery
Life Under Slavery
  • African Americans endured appalling hardship and misery, with little hope of freedom
  • Enslaved workers reached the fields before sunup, and left after sundown
  • Enslaved women as well as men were required to do the heavy fieldwork.
  • By the age of 10, children were considered ready to do fieldwork
life under slavery 2
Life under Slavery 2
  • Enslaved people lived off a diet consisting of cornmeal, pork fat, and molasses. They were allowed to have small gardens for vegetables to balance their diet
  • At any given time, a husband wife or child could be sold away, never to be seen again.
  • Many couples married anyway, even though law prevented it
life under slavery 3
Life Under Slavery 3
  • If a father was sold away, an aunt, uncle or friend would take care of the kids remaining
  • Religion became a big part of their lifestyle. Christianity was adopted by many slaves because it gave them hope for a better life.
  • Under Slave Codes, it was illegal for whites to teach slaves how to read and write. They thought an educated slave was more likely to rebel
  • There were very few examples of resistance, but Nat Turner led a rebellion
  • He taught himself to read and write, and before being captured him and his group killed 55 whites Nat turner was hanged, but his rebellion frightened southerners
  • Armed rebellions were rare, as burning down their masters buildings, or breaking tools were more common
escaping slavery
Escaping Slavery
  • Harriet Tubman and Fredrick Douglass were born into slavery and escaped it.
  • Slaves used the Underground Railroad, which was a network of “safe houses” which led to the North
  • The discipline was severe for slaves escaping, usually whipping
free african americans
Free African Americans
  • In big cities African Americans had their own communities such as barbers, carpenters, and small traders.
  • Southern States passed laws against free African Americans in Southern states.
  • In 1859, Arkansas ordered all free blacks out of the state.